Insects affecting forest trees

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J.B. Lyon, 1905 - Nature - 56 pages
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Page 518 - The mouth of each cradle is closed with a plug of the food fungus, and as fast as this is consumed it is renewed with fresh material.
Page xvii - From a common centre they run off in opposite directions up and down the tree, lengthwise of the grain, moderately diverging or nearly parallel with each other, appearing, when the bark is stripped off, like linear grooves in the outer surface of the wood and inner surface of the bark. They are about...
Page xxii - ... outer surface of the wood, and then mines a passage between the bark and the wood, in a straight line lengthwise of the tree or limb where no obstructions occur to cause her to deviate from her course. The male probably accompanies her and shares with her in this labor, each working by turns. Thus a long slender cylindrical gallery is formed, which is excavated about equally in the outer surface of the wood and in the inner layers of the bark. In some instances, two, three, or even six tracks...
Page 517 - The lame swallow the wood which they excavate, but do not digest it. It passes through the intestines unchanged in cellular texture, but cemented by the excrement into pellets and stained a yellowish color.
Page 528 - A large dark brown sub-apical patch is continued as a broad fuscous shade to internal angle. Fringes pale. Posterior wings very dark fuscous above ; pale testaceous beneath tinged with fuscous internally. Fringes pale testaceous. Abdomen fuscous above, pale testaceous beneath. Under surface of anterior wings entirely clouded with fuscous, giving in some lights a purple reflection. Expanse, $ 20 mil., ? 23 mil.
Page 497 - The grubs work in the shoots and kill them, causing the development of an irregularly deformed tree of very little commercial value. The adult beetle is from reddish brown to very dark brown in color, with a whitish spot near the posterior third of each wing cover. The creamy white pupa is of about the same length as the beetle. The grub is a white, footless creature, varying in size according to the stage of development. The beetles are most abundant in the spring, when the eggs are deposited on...
Page 504 - Masses of the pine bark louse Chermes pinicorticis Fitch 3 Pupal cells of white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi Peck under bark of pine log 4 Burrows of larvae of same in bark 5 Portion of dead shoot killed by the insect, showing the circular exit holes, the borings of the insect in upper part and the shrunken area extending down on the affected portion of the twig 6 Pupal cells of white pine weevil within the wood, showing method of exit and also a few exit holes in the shrunken affected bark 7 Adult...
Page 510 - I opened the cocoon and found the pupae of a chalcid fly, and afterwards found specimens of the adult, which, on making their exit, bore small holes through the sides of the cocoon. The history of the species is apparently somewhat as follows : The eggs are probably laid at the base of the needle early in May, or possibly in the preceding autumn, or possibly the larva winters in its gall, though this is not probable. At any rate the worms pupate within spun silken cocoons about the middle or the...
Page xxiii - ... but less in their width, and having their outer ends evenly rounded. In each of these notches from one to four eggs are placed. And as the beetles mine their way onwards, the fine dust which they form probably becomes strewed along the track behind them. Then, as they travel backwards and forwards in the burrow from time to time, the little stiff hairs with which their bodies are bearded, serve as a brush to sweep this dust into these lateral openings. Thus the mouths of these notches become...
Page 533 - ... before the beetles leave the bark. For the eastern spruce beetle: (1) Regulate the winter cutting so as to include as many of the infested, dying, and dead trees as possible, and place the logs from tnem in water before the first of June; (2) regulate the summer cutting so that as many recently attacked trees as possible may be cut and the bark removed from the trunks and stumps; (3) girdle, early in June, a large number of trees, in the vicinity of...

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