Instructing and Testing Advanced Learners: A Cognitive Load Approach
When we learn new and complex materials, our cognitive processing capabilities are usually severely reduced due to limited working memory capacity. Learner expertise in a specific domain decreases those limitations by enabling the use of the expert's organised knowledge base. In many instructional situations, however, expertise may also trigger additional cognitive load because of the processing of redundant information. Recently, strong evidence has emerged that instructional techniques, which are highly effective with novice learners, can lose their effectiveness and even have negative consequences when used with advanced learners. As learners become more knowledgeable in a domain, instructional techniques and procedures often need to change radically in order to remain efficient. To tailor instruction to levels of learner knowledge in computer-based learning environments, it is critical to have a simple and rapid measure of learner expertise suitable for real-time testing. The primary goal of this book is to provide the theoretical background and research-based recommendations on instructional techniques and diagnostic assessment methods that are suitable for advanced learners in multimedia learning environments.
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Basic Architecture of Human Cognition
Cognitive Studies of ExpertNovice Differences and Design
Cognitive Load Perspective in Instructional Design
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additional advanced learners allocated applying approach appropriate assessment auditory automated Chandler chunks circuit cognitive architecture cognitive load theory cognitive processing cognitive resources Cognitive Science complex components computer-based constructed coordinate geometry corresponding cumulative hierarchy demonstrated described diagnostic diagram different levels Educational Psychology element interactivity equation example experienced learners expertise reversal effect extraneous cognitive load Figure final answer first-step indicate instructional design instructional formats instructional guidance instructional materials integrated intelligent tutoring systems intermediate intrinsic cognitive load Kalyuga knowledge base learner expertise levels of expertise levels of learner limited long-term memory Mayer means-ends analysis memory capacity memory load Merrienboer method multidimensional novice learners operation Paas presented problem solving procedural knowledge rapid schema-based rapid test rapid verification representations require schema acquisition schematic knowledge structures schematic procedures score sentence sequence situations skills solution steps specific studies Sweller switch task pattern techniques textual traditional test vector visual