Instrumentation Between Science, State and Industry

Front Cover
B. Joerges, T. Shinn
Springer Science & Business Media, 2001 - Business & Economics - 270 pages
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these. In this book, we appropriate their conception of research-technology, and ex tend it to many other phenomena which are less stable and less localized in time and space than the Zeeman/Cotton situation. In the following pages, we use the concept for instances where research activities are orientated primarily toward technologies which facilitate both the production of scientific knowledge and the production of other goods. In particular, we use the tenn for instances where instruments and meth ods· traverse numerous geographic and institutional boundaries; that is, fields dis tinctly different and distant from the instruments' and methods' initial focus. We suggest that instruments such as the ultra-centrifuge, and the trajectories of the men who devise such artefacts, diverge in an interesting way from other fonns of artefacts and careers in science, metrology and engineering with which students of science and technology are more familiar. The instrument systems developed by re search-technologists strike us as especially general, open-ended, and flexible. When tailored effectively, research-technology instruments potentially fit into many niches and serve a host of unrelated applications. Their multi-functional character distin guishes them from many other devices which are designed to address specific, nar rowly defined problems in a circumscribed arena in and outside of science. Research technology activities link universities, industry, public and private research or me trology establishments, instrument-making finns, consulting companies, the military, and metrological agencies. Research-technology practitioners do not follow the career path of the traditional academic or engineering professional.
 

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Contents

A FRESH LOOK AT INSTRUMENTATION AN INTRODUCTION
1
ResearchTechnology
2
Science and Society
4
Science and Engineering
5
Theory and Experiment
6
A Specific Kind of Instrumentation
7
Generic Devices
9
DisEmbedding ReEmbedding
10
PURVIEWS OF GENERIC INSTRUMENTS
119
IN SEARCH OF SPACE FOURIER SPECTROSCOPY 19501970
121
The Technology and its Proponents
122
The 1957 Bellevue Conference
127
New Communities and Their Patrons
128
Provoking Opposition
129
Tactics of the Fourier Community
130
Fate of the Community
138

The Book
11
ORIGINS OF THE RESEARCHTECHNOLOGY COMMUNITY
15
FROM THEODOLITE TO SPECTRAL APPARATUS JOSEPH VON FRAUNHOFER AND THE INVENTION OF A GERMAN OPTICAL RESEARC...
17
Fraunhofers Metrology of Optical Glass Manufacturing
18
Public and Private Knowledge at Closter Benediktbeuern
20
The Invention of a ResearchTechnological Tradition
22
Conclusion
26
THE RESEARCHTECHNOLOGY MATRIX GERMAN ORIGINS 18601900
29
The Backdrop
31
The Neutsche Gesellschaft for Mechanik und Optik
33
Prosopography
36
Staatliche Forschung
37
Academia
39
Industry
40
Artisans and Consultancy
41
Engineering
42
Instrument Politics
43
Trajectory Structure
45
INTERSTITIAL WORLDS
49
DISPLACING RADIOACTIVITY
51
The Uses of Accumulation
52
The Curie Laboratories and the Radium Industry
55
The Metrology of Radioactivity
58
The Institut Du Radium as a Generic Institution
60
Conclusion
63
STRANGE COOPERATIONS THE US RESEARCHTECHNOLOGY PERSPECTIVE 19001955
69
Success and paradox 19001930
71
A NarrowNiche GroundSwell
72
A New Focus
74
The Review of Scientific Instruments
75
Instrument Citation
77
ResearchTechnology Versus NarrowNiche Instruments
79
The Instrument Publishing Company
80
The Instrument Society of America
82
Strange Cooperations
84
Crossing Boundaries
86
Men out of Academia
87
Men out of Industry
91
Exit
93
MEDIATING BETWEEN PLANT SCIENCE AND PLANT BREEDING THE ROLE OF RESEARCHTECHNOLOGY
97
A Case Study
98
Plant Genetics and Plant Breeding in the 1990s
100
Three Types of Research
101
Technology in the Form of PlantGene Technology and PlantCell Biology
103
Research Practice Developing Generic Devices
105
Interpretational Framework Competing Repertoires
109
Between TheoryOriented ProductOriented Plant Biology
111
ProductOriented Research
112
The Role of ResearchTechonology in Biology and its Future
115
Conclusion
139
PUTTING ISOTOPES TO WORK LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTERS 19501970
143
Radiolabels in Biological and Medical Research
145
Early Steps in Radiation measurement
147
Liquid Scintillation Counting
149
Testing a Commercial Prototype
152
Making the Instrument Work for Inexperienced Personnel
158
Between Industry and Customers
164
An Interdisciplinary and International Network
166
Instead of a Conclusion
170
MAKING MICE AND OTHER DEVICES THE DYNAMICS OF INSTRUMENTATION IN AMERICAN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH 19301960
175
The Rockefeller Foundation Ultracentrifuges and Mices
176
Making Ultracentrifuges
177
The Jackson Laboratory and the Origins of Inbred Mice
178
Electron Microscopy and Big Biomedicine
180
Mass Production InstrumentCentered Research and Flexible Uses of Mice
183
Screening Drugs and Producing Mice
184
Making Mouse Mutants at the Jackson Laboratory
186
ResearchTechnology Standard Mice and Flexible Uses
189
Conclusion
192
STANDARDIZED LANGUAGES
197
FROM DYNAMOMETERS TO SIMULATIONS TRANSFORMING BRAKE TESTING TECHNOLOGY INTO ANTILOCK BRAKING SYSTEMS
199
The Inertia Dynamometer
200
Skidding and the Research Programs of the Road Research Laboratory
202
Enter Dunlop Rubber Company
205
Formation of a ResearchTechnology Community
208
Constraints and Problems in Brake Testing
212
Bridging the Gap from ResearchTechnology to Antilock Braking Systems
213
FROM THE LABORATORY TO THE MARKET THE METROLOGICAL ARENAS OF RESEARCHTECHNOLOGY
219
From Atmospheric Chemistry to Urban Pollution Monitoring
221
DOAS as a ResearchTechnology
223
A Metrological Puzzle
225
Experimental Metrology in Action
227
Official Metrology and the Practices of Precision
230
A Market for DOAS Instruments
233
ResearchTechnology and the Diversity of Metrological Arenas
236
IN CONCLUSION
239
RESEARCHTECHNOLOGY IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AN ATTEMPT AT RECONSTRUCTION
241
DisciplineRelated Science and Technology Studies
242
Transitory Science and Technology Studies
243
Transverse Science and Technology Studies
244
Generic Instrumentation Divisions of Labor and Differentiation
245
Generic Instrumentation ReEmbedding and Cohesion
246
Bibliography of Selected References
249
List of Contributors
259
Bibliographical Notes on Contributors
261
Author Index
265
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