## Instrumentation and Control SystemsIn a clear and readable style, Bill Bolton addresses the basic principles of modern instrumentation and control systems, including examples of the latest devices, techniques and applications. Unlike the majority of books in this field, only a minimal prior knowledge of mathematical methods is assumed. The book focuses on providing a comprehensive introduction to the subject, with Laplace presented in a simple and easily accessible form, complimented by an outline of the mathematics that would be required to progress to more advanced levels of study. Taking a highly practical approach, Bill Bolton combines underpinning theory with numerous case studies and applications throughout, to enable the reader to apply the content directly to real-world engineering contexts. Coverage includes smart instrumentation, DAQ, crucial health and safety considerations, and practical issues such as noise reduction, maintenance and testing. An introduction to PLCs and ladder programming is incorporated in the text, as well as new information introducing the various software programmes used for simulation. Problems with a full answer section are also included, to aid the reader’s self-assessment and learning, and a companion website (for lecturers only) at http://textbooks.elsevier.com features an Instructor’s Manual including multiple choice questions, further assignments with detailed solutions, as well as additional teaching resources. The overall approach of this book makes it an ideal text for all introductory level undergraduate courses in control engineering and instrumentation. It is fully in line with latest syllabus requirements, and also covers, in full, the requirements of the Instrumentation & Control Principles and Control Systems & Automation units of the new Higher National Engineering syllabus from Edexcel. * Assumes minimal prior mathematical knowledge, creating a highly accessible student-centred text * Problems, case studies and applications included throughout, with a full set of answers at the back of the book, to aid student learning, and place theory in real-world engineering contexts * Free online lecturer resources featuring supporting notes, multiple-choice tests, lecturer handouts and further assignments and solutions |

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### Contents

1 | |

17 | |

Chapter 3 Instrumentation case studies | 68 |

Chapter 4 Control systems | 82 |

Chapter 5 Process controllers | 101 |

Chapter 6 Correction elements | 125 |

Chapter 7 PLC systems | 156 |

Chapter 8 System models | 179 |

Chapter 11 Frequency response | 252 |

Chapter 12 Nyquist diagrams | 282 |

Chapter 13 Controllers | 290 |

Errors | 303 |

Differential equations | 311 |

Laplace transform | 319 |

Answers | 327 |

334 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

accuracy amplifier amplitude analogue angular armature basic Bode plot capacitance capacitor circuit closed-loop coil constant contacts control system control valve controller output converter cylinder diaphragm differential equation displacement electrical element error signal Example Determine F Decide False F flow rate fluid forward path freq frequency response frequency response function gain margin gives an output Hence hydraulic input signal instrument integral internal relay ladder diagram Laplace transform linear liquid loop LVDT magnet magnitude measurement system moves open-loop operate oscillations output voltage overall transfer function overshoot partial fractions percentage phase margin PID controller piston poles position Problems proportional control rad/s range resistance resistor result rotation sequence set value shown in Figure shows signal processing solenoid speed statements is True steady-state value step input stepper motor strain gauges switch term thermistor thermocouple thermometer timer transfer function unit step input variable voltage zero

### Popular passages

Page 11 - The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1 meter apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 X 10"7 newton per meter of length.

Page 12 - The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon 12.

Page 12 - Supplementary unit, the steradian, is the solid angle which, having its vertex in the center of a sphere, cuts off an area of the surface of the sphere equal to that of a square with sides of length equal to the radius of the sphere.

Page 11 - The candela is the luminious intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 Hz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian (see below).

Page 11 - The metre is the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second.

Page 9 - The reliability of a measurement element or system can be defined as: 'the probability that the element or system will operate to an agreed level of performance, for a specified period, subject to specified environmental conditions'.

Page 11 - These are defined by international agreement and are maintained by national establishments, eg, the National Physical Laboratory in Great Britain and the National Bureaux of Standards in the United States.

Page 4 - The error of a measurement is the difference between the result of the measurement and the true value of the quantity being measured.