Integration in Respiratory Control: From Genes to Systems

Front Cover
Marc Poulin, Richard J. A. Wilson
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 10, 2007 - Medical - 542 pages
Like the geological treasures that surely must lie below the Athabasca glacier, some of the answers to key questions about the control of respiration remain buried. But bit by bit, year by year the ice is melting and perhaps in some areas the rocks are starting to be revealed. With a mission to advance our understanding of the emerging th th gems of respiration, the X Oxford Conference was held between 19–24 September (2006) next to the turquoise and tranquil waters of Lake Louise, in the middle of Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Since its inauguration 30 years ago in Oxford, the Oxford Conference on mo- ling and control of breathing has been held every three years in locations spanning the globe (a list of past conferences and publications that have emerged is included in the pages that follow). The series has provided key opportunities for respiratory scientists to meet with colleagues, discuss recent advances and celebrate their field. The 2006 Lake Louise meeting was Canada’s second Oxford Conference; the th previous Canadian meeting (the VII Oxford Conference) was held in 1997 at the Grandview Inn in Huntsville (Ontario) and was chaired by Richard Hughson, David Cunningham and Jim Duffin.
 

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Contents

History of Measuring O₂ and CO₂ Responses
3
JS Haldane and Some of His Contributions to Physiology
9
Control of the Exercise Hyperpnea The Unanswered Question
16
Oxygen Sensing and the Carotid Body
22
A Peripheral Oxygen Sensor Provides Direct Activation of an Identified Respiratory CPG Neuron in Lymnaea
25
Environmental Hyperoxia and Development of Carotid Chemoafferent Function
30
HSP70 Reduces Chronic HypoxiaInduced Neural Suppression via Regulating Expression of Syntaxin
35
Effect of Systemic Administration of the Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor LNMMA on the Human Ventilatory Response to Hypoxia
41
Significance of Multiple Neurochemicals that Regulate Respiration
268
Disinhibition of the Dorsomedial Hypothalamus Increases the Frequency of Augmented Breaths in the Anesthetized Rat
274
Major Components of Endogenous Neurotransmission Underlying the Discharge Activity of Hypoglossal Motoneurons in vivo
279
Part VIII Comparative Aspects
285
Control of Ventilation in Diving Birds
286
Evolutionary Trends in Respiratory Mechanisms
293
Central Chemosensitivity
299
A Computer Model of Mammalian Central CO₂ Chemoreception
301

Effects of Volatile Anesthetics on Carotid Body Response to Hypoxia in Animals
46
Mutation of the von HippelLindau Gene Alters Human Cardiopulmonary Physiology
51
Intravenous Endothelin1 and Ventilatory Sensitivity to Hypoxia in Humans
57
Key Roles for AMPactivated Protein Kinase in the Function of the Carotid Body?
63
Stimulatory Actions of Pituitary Adenylate CyclaseActivating Polypeptide PACAP in Rat Carotid Glomus Cells
69
Posthypoxic Unstable Breathing in the C57BL6J Mouse Effects of Acetazolamide
75
Respiratory Rhythm Generation
80
Catecholaminergic Modulation of the Respiratory Rhythm Generator in the Isolated BrainstemSpinal Cord Preparation from Neonatal Rat
83
What Role Do Pacemakers Play in the Generation of Respiratory Rhythm?
88
PreBötzinger Complex Neurokinin1 Receptor Expressing Neurons in Primary Cell Culture
94
BeltandSuspenders as a Biological Design Principle
99
Two Modes of Respiratory Rhythm Generation in the Newborn Rat BrainstemSpinal Cord Preparation
104
Possible Roles of the Weakly Inward Rectifying K+ Channel Kir41 KCNJ10 in the PreBötzinger Complex
109
Contribution of Pacemaker Neurons to Respiratory Rhythms Generation in vitro
114
Emergent Bursting in Small Networks of Model Conditional Pacemakers in the preBötzinger Complex
119
Genes and Development
125
Brain Nuclei Controlling the Spinal Respiratory Motoneurons in the Newborn Mouse
126
Superoxide Dismutase1 Influences the Timing and Posthypoxic Stability of Neonatal Breathing
133
Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in the Brainstem of Prenatal Mice Lacking the PraderWilli Syndrome Gene Necdin
139
Consequences of Prenatal Exposure to Diazepam on the Respiratory Parameters Respiratory Network Activity and Gene Expression of 𝛼1 and 𝛼2 Su...
144
Modulation of Perinatal Respiratory Rhythm by GABAA and Glycine Receptormediated Chloride Conductances
149
Laryngeal Stimulation by an Acid Solution in the Preterm Lamb
154
Necdin Gene Respiratory Disturbances and PraderWilli Syndrome
159
Models of Gas Exchange
165
Quantitative Analysis of the Oxygen Transfer in the Human Acinus
167
Role of Diffusion Screening in Pulmonary Diseases
173
A dpdt Method to Assess Dynamic Properties of Lung Mechanoreceptors
179
Pulmonary Gas Exchange in AnatomicallyBased Models of the Lung
184
Multiscale Models of the Lung Airways and Vascular System
190
Modeling StructureFunction Interdependence of Pulmonary Gas Exchange
195
Plasticity and Adaptation
201
Ventilatory Control during Intermittent HighIntensity Exercise in Humans
202
Exerciseinduced Respiratory Muscle Work Effects on Blood Flow Fatigue and Performance
209
Phase Relations Between Rhythmical Movements and Breathing in Wind Instrument Players
213
The Effect of Two Different Intermittent Hypoxia Protocols on Ventilatory Responses to Hypoxia and Carbon Dioxide at Rest
218
Respiratory LongTerm Facilitation Too Much or Too Little of a Good Thing?
224
Contribution of Endothelin1 and Endothelin A and B Receptors to the Enhanced Carotid Body Chemosensory Responses Induced by Chronic Interm...
228
Intermittent Hypoxia Induces Respiratory LongTerm Facilitation in Postnatal Rats
233
Respiratory Control Respiratory Sensations and Cycling Endurance After Respiratory Muscle Endurance Training
239
Nondimensional Quantification of the Interactions Between Hypoxia Hypercapnia and Exercise on Ventilation in Humans
245
Elevated Body Temperature Exaggerates Laryngeal Chemoreflex Apnea in Decerebrate Piglets
249
Part VII Neuromodulation
255
Effects of Systemic Administration of Mirtazapine on Respiratory Muscle Activity in Sleeping Rats
257
Control of Genioglossus Muscle by Sleep StateDependent Neuromodulators
262
A Mathematical Model of pHi Regulation in Central CO₂ Chemoreception
306
Plasticity in the Brain Influence of Bilateral Carotid Body Resection bCBR on Central CO₂ Sensitivity
312
Glial Modulation of CO₂ Chemosensory Excitability in the Retrotrapezoid Nucleus of Rodents
317
The Carotid Chemoreceptors are a Major Determinant of Ventilatory CO₂ Sensitivity and of PaCO₂ During Eupneic Breathing
322
The Retrotrapezoid Nucleus and Central Chemoreception
327
The Chemosensitive Response of Neurons from the Locus Coeruleus LC to Hypercapnic Acidosis with Clamped Intracellular pH
333
CO₂sensitivity of GABAergic Neurons in the Ventral Medullary Surface of GAD67GFP Knockin Neonatal Mice
338
Multiple Central Chemoreceptor Sites Cell Types and Function in vivo
343
Intrinsic Chemosensitivity of Individual Nucleus Tractus Solitarius NTS and Locus Coeruleus LC Neurons from Neonatal Rats
348
Chemosensitive Neuronal Network Organization in the Ventral Medulla Analyzed by Dynamic VoltageImaging
353
Brainstem Mechanisms Underlying CardioRespiratory Control
358
The Effects of a Respiratory Acidosis on Human Heart Rate Variability
361
Neurokinin1 Receptor Activation in the Bötzinger Complex Evokes Bradypnea and is Involved in Mediating the HeringBreuer Reflex
366
Brainstem Catecholaminergic Neurons Modulate both Respiratory and Cardiovascular Function
371
Responses of Brainstem Respiratory Neurons to Activation of Midbrain Periaqueductal Gray in the Rat
377
Computational Model of TASK Channels and PKCPathway Dependent Serotonergic Modulatory Effects in RespiratoryRelated Neurons
382
Modulation of HeringBreuer Reflex by Ventrolateral Pons
387
Respiratory Network Complexity in Neonatal Rat in vivo and in vitro
393
Multifunctional and Reconfiguring Networks
399
Fast Oscillatory Rhythms in Inspiratory Motor Discharge A Mathematical Model
400
BursttoBurst Variability in Respiratory Timing InspiratoryPhase Spectral Activity and Inspiratory Neural Network Complexity in UrethaneAnesthetiz...
407
Effects of Hypercapnia on Nonnutritive Swallowing in Newborn Lambs
413
CPAP Inhibits Nonnutritive Swallowing Through Stimulation of Bronchopulmonary Receptors
418
Glutamatergic Neurotransmission is Not Essential for but Plays a Modulatory Role in the Production of Gasping in ArteriallyPerfused Adult Rat
423
Clinical Perspectives Modeling and Control of Breathing ie Sleep Apnea
428
Potential Mechanism for Transition Between Acute Hypercapnia During Sleep to Chronic Hypercapnia During Wakefulness in Obstructive Sleep Ap...
429
Biochemical Control of Airway Motor Neurons During Rapid Eye Movement Sleep
437
Prediction of Periodic Breathing at Altitude
442
A Negative Interaction Between Central and Peripheral Respiratory Chemoreceptors May Underlie SleepInduced Respiratory Instability A Novel Hyp...
447
Ventilatory Response to Hypercapnia in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women
452
Oxidative Stress Impairs Upper Airway Muscle Endurance in an Animal Model of SleepDisordered Breathing
458
Ventilatory and Blood Pressure Responses to Isocapnic Hypoxia in OSA Patients
463
Modeling of SleepInduced Changes in Airway Function Implication for Nocturnal Worsening of Bronchial Asthma
469
The Effects of Wakefulness State on the Temporal Characteristics of Ventilatory Variables in Man
475
Cerebral Blood Flow and Ventilatory Sensitivity to CO₂ Measured with the Modified Rebreathing Method
480
Naloxone Reversal of OpioidInduced Respiratory Depression with Special Emphasis on the Partial AgonistAntagonist Buprenorphine
486
The Pulse Oxygen Saturation Inspired Oxygen Pressure SpO₂PIO₂ Diagram Application in the Ambulatory Assessment of Pulmonary Vascular Dis...
492
Hypocapnia and Airway Resistance in Normal Humans
497
Disturbances of Breathing in Rett Syndrome Results from Patients and Animal Models
503
NHE3 in the Human Brainstem Implication for the Pathogenesis of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS?
508
The Ventilatory Response to Exercise Does Not Differ Between Obese Women With and Without Dyspnea on Exertion
514
Author Index
519
Subject Index
537
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Page 518 - The relationship of respiratory failure to the oxygen consumption of, lactate production by and distribution of blood flow among respiratory muscles during increasing inspiratory resistance. J. Clin. Invest.