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THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL REVIEW
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A/cm Al^Oj Andreev reflection approximately base electrode behaviour bottom junction characteristics charge imbalance relaxation chip chlorobenzene coherence length common electrode counterelectrode neck critical current cryostat curve deposited detector junction dimensional double edge device double edge junction driven normal edge film edge geometry effective temperature electron beam electron beam evaporation electron beam lithography energy gap energy gap gradient equation etching evaporation excess quasiparticle density fabrication fanout gap edge gap suppression device ibrium increased injected quasiparticles injection current injection efficiency injection power injection rate injection voltage injector junction ion mill junction of device layer liftoff mask aligner material Nb edge Nb films nonequil nonequilibrium normal state transitions oxidation particle PbBi PbBi counterelectrodes phonon escape photoresist plot quasiparticle and phonon quasiparticle diffusion length quasiparticle injection recombination resist system sandwich geometry Schematic shown in Figure sputtering structure substrate superconducting supercurrent thermal top junction transition occurs transition region tunnel barriers tunnel junctions typical