Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe in Bristish National Development

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Transaction Publishers, 1995 - Social Science - 390 pages
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Recent years have seen a resurgence of separatist sentiments among national minorities in many industrial societies, including the United Kingdom. In 1997, the Scottish and Welsh both set up their own parliamentary bodies, while the tragic events in Northern Ireland continued to be a reminder of the Irish problem. These phenomena call into question widely accepted social theories which assume that ethnic attachments in a society will wane as industrialization proceeds.

This book presents the social basis of ethnic identity, and examines changes in the strength of ethnic solidarity in the United Kingdom in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In addition to its value as a case study, the work also has important comparative implications, for it suggests that internal colonialism of the kind experienced in the British Isles has its analogues in the histories of other industrial societies.

Hechter examines the unexpected persistence of ethnicity in the politics of industrial societies by focusing on the British Isles. Why do many of the inhabitants of Wales, Scotland, and Ireland continue to maintain an ethnic identity opposed to England? Hechter explains the salience of ethnic identity by analyzing the relationships between England, the national core, and its periphery, the Celtic fringe, in the light of two alternative models of core-periphery relations in the industrial setting. These are a diffusion model, which predicts that intergroup contact leads to ethnic homogenization, and an internal colonial model, in which such contact heightens distinctive ethnic identification.

His findings lend support to the internal colonial model, and show that, although industrialization did contribute to a decline in interregional linguistic differences, it resulted neither in the cultural assimilation of Celtic lands, nor in the development of regional economic equality. The study concludes that ethnic solidarity will inevitably emerge among groups which are relegated to inferior positions in a cultural division of labor. This is an important contribution to the understanding of socioeconomic development and ethnicity.

 

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it,s agreat book

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If we are to sum up the problem of Celtic fringe nationalism, we shall conclude that it provides one of the completely rare illustrations of what classical nineteenth century socialist theory hoped for: proletarian nations whose working classes resisted the attractions of nationalist agitation, preferring to recognize under the banner of an international ideology based essentially on class interest.
Summery
HECTOR study in the paper which consists of culturally heterogeneous population area where England is core and its regions are periphery. The colonial incursion of England into Celtic lands produced the problem of culture which Anglicization among agrarian ruling class of region. In the pre-industrial era core-periphery relation is not inconsistent with either model of national development. The social base nationalist sentiment remained significant in the Celt periphery form 1855 to 1966. Nationalist sentiments in the periphery reached to peak in the early twentieth period. It has been much speculation about the role of industrialization plays in the process of national development. Some sociologists suggested about structural differentiation which intensified by industrialization under undermines political association on the basis of commonly held market, or class characteristics. The extensiveness of division of labor and high degree of social and geographic mobility in the industrial setting should thus prelude the articulation of political demands on cultural or on regional grounds. The partial industrialization of Wales and Scotland permit national integration into national society through unions and national party politics. In Recent era it has seen a resurgence of separatist sentiments among national sections in many industrial societies, including the United Kingdom. In 1997, the Scottish and Welsh both set up their own parliamentary bodies, while the tragic events in Northern Ireland continued to be a reminder of the Irish problem. These phenomena call into question widely accepted social theories which assume that ethnic attachments in a society will wane as industrialization proceeds. The Celtic ethnic associated with religious and linguistic difference from England. He presents the social basis of ethnic identity, and examines changes in the strength of ethnic solidarity in the United Kingdom in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The deviation in prediction of conservative voting behavior from seven structural indicators of industrialization had different in England, Wales and Scotland in the period 1885 to1966. The unspecified factor in the regression model was contributing to lower propensities towards Conservative voting in the Celtic fringe than expected on the basis of social structural considerations. These unexpected Conservative voting on the basis of structural variables were interpreted as indicating the presence of status group orientation towards politics rather than functional orientation of class solidarity. There are empirically test questions about wealth and voting behavior under the concept of Functional theory for the significance of culture factor in England Wales and Scotland.
In addition to its value as a case study, the work also has important comparative implications; it suggests that internal colonialism of the kind experienced in the British Isles has its analogues in the histories of other industrial societies. Hector examines the unexpected persistence of ethnicity in the politics of industrial societies by focusing on the British Isles. Why do many of the inhabitants of Wales, Scotland, and Ireland continue to maintain an ethnic identity opposed to England? Hector explains the salience of ethnic identity by analyzing the relationships between England, the national core, and its periphery, the Celtic fringe, in the light of two alternative models of core-periphery relations in the industrial setting. These are a diffusion model, which predicts that intergroup contact leads to ethnic homogenization, and
 

Contents

INTRODUCTION
4
TOWARDS A THEORY OF ETHNIC CHANGE
16
AN EXPLORATORY MODEL
18
DIFFUSION MODELS OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
23
THE PERIPHERY AS AN INTERNAL COLONY
31
ON THE CAUSE OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN COLLECTIVITIES
35
THE POLITICS OF ETHNIC CHANGE
40
THE EXPANSION OF THE ENGLISH STATE
48
CONCLUSION
207
THE PERSISTENCE OF SECTIONALISM 18851966
209
THE BRITISH ISLES AS A CASE STUDY
214
AN INDIRECT METHOD OF MEASURING PERIPHERAL SECTIONALISM
216
FINDINGS
224
CONCLUSION
234
SERVITOR IMPERIALISM AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN AN AGE OF EMPIRE
235
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
238

THE ROLE OF ECOLOGY IN BRITISH HISTORY
50
Since the terms state and nation have been defined in many different ways it is advisable to employ a standard vocabulary in discussing them Here th...
60
THE IMPOSITION OF ENGLISH AUTHORITY
66
ENGLISH MOTIVES BEHIND UNION
70
GOVERNMENTAL INSISTENCE ON ENGLISH CULTURAL SUPERIORITY
74
THE CONSEQUENCES OF POLITICAL INCORPORATION
80
THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF INCORPORATION
82
The loss of sovereignty and its effects
91
THE REFORMATION AND ITS AFTERMATH
96
THE CULTURAL CONSEQUENCES OF INCORPORATION
110
THE POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES OF INCORPORATION
120
INDUSTRIALIZATION AND REGIONAL ECONOMIC INEQUALITY 18511961
128
THE NINETEENTH AND TWENTIETH CENTURIES
134
18511961
138
THE ENCLAVE AND THE HINTERLAND
144
THE INTERPRETATION OF ECONOMIC INEQUALITY
151
CONCLUSION
159
a note on the per capita income variable
162
THE ANGLICIZATION OF THE CELTIC PERIPHERY 18511961
165
THE DISTRIBUTION OF RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION IN THE BRITISH ISLES
168
THE DECLINE OF CELTIC LANGUAGE SPEAKING IN THE BRITISH ISLES
192
MEASURING REGIONAL POLITICAL RESPONSES
244
THE ELIMINATION OF STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES
252
ESTIMATING THE EFFECT OF ECONOMIC DIVERSITY
258
CONCLUSIONS
261
TWENTIETHCENTURY CELTIC NATIONALISM
265
THE PROBLEM OF IRISH SECESSION
267
SOLIDIFICATION OF CLASS BASED VOTING
294
THE PARADOX OF CELTIC RESURGENCE
299
THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF ETHNIC CHANGE
312
TWO THEORIES OF ETHNIC CHANGE
313
TRENDS IN STATUS GROUP SOLIDARITY
318
THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURAL FACTORS ON INCOME
322
SOME FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS
324
ON THE PRECONDITIONS OF STATUS GROUP SOLIDARITY
327
CONTEXTUAL FOUNDATIONS FOR THE EMERGENCE OF STATUS GROUP POLITICS
332
CONCLUSIONS
340
CONCLUSION
342
GROUP FORMATION AND THE CULTURAL DIVISION OF LABOR
354
INDEX
384
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Page xxix - I am haunted by the human chimpanzees I saw along that hundred miles of horrible country. I don't believe they are our fault. I believe there are not only many more of them than of old, but that they are happier, better, more comfortably fed and lodged under our rule than they ever were. But to see white chimpanzees is dreadful ; if they were black, one would not feel it so much, but their skins, except where tanned by exposure, are as white as ours.
Page 25 - Acculturation comprehends those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups.

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