International Law: War and neutrality

Front Cover
Longmans, Green, 1906 - International law
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Contents

Value of Arbitration
20
Arbitration according to the Hague Convention 19 Arbitral Justice in general
21
Arbitration Treaty and appointment of Arbitrators
23
Procedure of and before the Arbitral Tribunal
24
Arbitral Award
26
Award binding upon Parties only
28
CHAPTER II
29
Compulsive Means in contradistinction to an Ultimatum and Demonstrations
30
Retorsion 29 Conception and Character of Retorsion
31
Retorsion when justified
32
Retorsion how exercised
33
Reprisals 33 Conception of Reprisals in contradistinction to Retorsion
34
Reprisals admissible for International Delinquencies only
35
Reprisals by whom performed
36
Spes iiul Irene 416
38
Positive and Negative Reprisals
39
Embargo
40
SKCT PA8K 41 Reprisals to be preceded by Negotiations and to be stopped when Reparation is made
41
Value of Reprisals
42
Development of Practice of Pacific Blockade
43
Admissibility of Pacific Blockade
45
Pacific Blockade and Vessels of Third States
46
Pacific Blockade and Vessels of the Blockaded State
47
Manner of Pacific Blockade
48
Intervention 50 Intervention in contradistinction to Participation in a difference
49
Mode of Intervention
51
PART II
53
ON WAR IN GENERAL I Characteristics of War 53 War no Illegality
55
Conception of War
56
War a Contention
57
WTar a Contention between States
58
KELATION8 BETWEEN BELLIGERENTS AND NEUTKALS
60
powering each other
64
Civil War
65
Guerilla War
66
Causes Kinds and Ends of War 61 Rules of Warfare independent of Causes of War
69
Causes in contradistinction to Pretexts for War
71
Different Kinds of War
72
The Laws of War 67 Origin of the Laws of War
74
The latest Development of the Laws of War
76
Binding Force of the Laws of War
79
Begion of War in contradistinction to Theatre of War
80
Exclusion from Region of War through Neutralisation 82
82
Asserted Exclusion of the Baltic Sea from the Region of War
83
The Belligerents 74 Qualification of a Belligerent facultas bellandl
84
Possibility in contradistinction to Qualification to become a Belligerent
85
Insurgents as a Belligerent Power
86
Principal and accessory Belligerent Parties
87
The Armed Forces of the Belligerents 78 Regular Armies and Navies
88
Irregular Forces
89
Levies en masse
90
Barbarous Forces
91
Privateers
92
Volunteer Fleet
93
The Crews of Merchantmen
96
Talbot 376
97
Subjects of Neutral States rendering Services to Belli gerents
98
Commencement of War KKCT 1AOK 93 Three Modes of commencing War
102
Declaration of War
103
War Manifestoes
104
IT Effects of the Outbreak of War 97 General Effects of the Outbreak of War
106
Rupture of Diplomatic Intercourse and Consular Activity
107
Precarious Position of Belligerents Subjects on Enemy Territory
109
Trade and the like between the Subjects of Belligerents
110
Position of Belligerents Property in the Enemy State
111
CHAPTER III
113
Lawful and Unlawful Practices of Land Warfare
114
Violence against Enemy Persons 107 On Violence in general against Enemy Persons
115
Killing and Wounding of Combatants 116
116
Refusal of Quarter
117
Lawful and Unlawful Means of killing and wounding Com batants
118
U2 Expanding DumDum Bullets
119
Projectiles diffusing Asphyxiating or Deleterious Gases
120
SECT PAOE 118 Origin of Geneva Convention
123
The Wounded and the Sick
125
Ambulances and Military Hospitals
126
Inhabitants nursing the Wounded
127
Distinctive Emblem
128
Captivity I 125 Development of Internationa Law regarding Captivity
129
Treatment of Prisoners of War
131
v127 Who may claim to be Prisoners of War
133
Release on Parole
134
Belief Societies
135
End of Captivity
136
Appropriation and Utilisation of Public Enemy Property 133 Appropriation of all the Enemy Property no longer admis sible
137
Immoveable Property of Municipalities and of Religious Charitable and the like Institutions
138
Utilisation of Public Buildings
139
V138 Moveable Property of Municipalities and of Religious Charitable and the like Institutions
140
Appropriation and Utilisation of Private Enemy Property 140 Immoveable Private Property
142
Private War Material and Means of Transport
144
Private Enemy Property brought into a Belligerents Terri tory
145
Iieqnisitions and Contributions 146 War must support War
146
Requisitions in Kind and Quartering
148
Contributions
149
Destruction of Enemy Property BKCT PAOE 149 Wanton Destruction prohibited
150
Destruction for the Purpose of Offence and Defence
151
Transport
152
General Devastation
153
Assault Siege and Bombardment
155
Assault Siege and Bombardment when lawful
156
Bombardment how carried out
157
A Espionage and Treason 159 Twofold Character of Espionage and Treason
159
Espionage in contradistinction to Scouting and Despatch bearing
160
Punishment of Espionage
162
Character of Ruses of War
164
Stratagems in contradistinction to Perfidy
166
vXlI Occupation of Enemy Territory 166 Occupation as an Aim of Warfare
167
Occupation when effected
169
Occupation when ended
173
Rights of the Occupant regarding the Inhabitants 174
174
171 Position of Government Officials and Municipal Function aries during Occupation
176
Position of Courts of Justice during Occupation
177
WARFARE ON SEA V I On Sea Warfare in General 173 Aims and Means of Sea Warfare
179
Lawful and Unlawful Practices of Sea Warfare
180
Property on Sea
181
Declaration of Paris
183
The Principle of Appropriation of Private Enemy Vessels and Enemy Goods thereon
184
Impending Codification of Law of Sea Warfare
187
Attack when legitimate
188
Attack how effected
189
Duty of giving Quarter
190
Seizure
191
Immunity of Vessels of Discovery and Exploration
192
Trent 450
193
Immunity of Merchantmen at the Outbreak of War on their Voyage to and from a Uelligerents Port
194
Immunity of Hospital and Cartel Ships
195
Appropriation and Destruction of Enemy Merchantmen 192 Prize Courts
196
Ransom of Prize
202
Loss of Prize especially Recapture
203
Fate of Prize
205
Effect of Sale of Enemy Vessels during War
206
Goods sold by and to Enemy Subjects during War
207
Violence against Enemy Persons 201 Violence against Combatants
208
Violence against Noncombatant Members of Naval Forces
209
Violence against the Head of the Enemy State and against Officials in Important Positions 122
210
The Wounded Sick and Shipwrecked
212
fvxrr paqk
215
Bombardment of the Enemy Coast
223
Safeguards
229
Cartels
235
Armistices SECT PAOK 231 Character and Kinds of Armistices
243
Suspensions of Anns
244
Partial Armistices
246
Proposed Restriction of Reprisals
262
Conception of War Crimes
264
Hostilities in Arms by Private Individuals
266
Espionage and War Treason
267
Marauding
270
Taking of Hostages 258 Former Practice of taking Hostages
271
END OF WAR AND POSTLIMINIUM
274
Treaty of Peace the most frequent End of War
280
Effects of Treaty of Peace
287
Postliminium according to International Law in contradis
293
ON NEUTRALITY IN GENERaL I Development of the Institution of Neutrality SKCT PAUK 285 Neutrality not practised in Ancient Times
301
Neutrality during the Middle Ages
302
Neutrality during the Seventeenth Century
303
Progress of Neutrality during the Eighteenth Century
304
CONTRABAND
306
The French Revolution and the Second Armed Neutrality
309
Neutrality during the Nineteenth Century
313
Neutrality in the Twentieth Century
314
Conception of Neutrality
316
Neutrality an Attitude of Impartiality
317
Bight and Duties deriving from Neutrality
318
Neutrality an Attitude of States
319
No Cessation of Intercourse during Neutrality between Neu trals and Belligerents
320
Neutrality an Attitude during War Neutrality in Civil War
321
Neutrality to be recognised by the Belligerents
322
Different Kinds of Neutrality 300 Perpetual Neutrality
323
General and Partial Neutrality
324
Armed Neutrality
325
Perfect and Qualified Neutrality
326
Some Historical Examples of Qualified Neutrality
327
Neutrality commences with Knowledge of the War 32S 308 Commencement of Neutrality in Civil War
329
Municipal Neutrality Laws
330
End of Neutrality
332
SKfT PAQE 313 Conduct in General of Neutrals and Belligerents
333
Rights and Duties of Neutrals contested
334
Contents of Duty of Impartiality
336
Duty of Impartiality continuously growing more intense
337
Contents of Duty of Belligerents to Neutrals in accordance with their Impartiality
338
Contents of Duty not to suppress Intercourse between Neu trals and the Enemy
339
Neutrals and Military Operation 320 Hostilities by and against Neutrals
340
gerent Forces 367
341
Furnishing of Troops and MenofWar to Belligerents
343
Subjects of Neutrals fighting among Belligerent Forces
344
Passage of Troops and War Material through Neutral Territory
345
Passage of Wounded through Neutral Territory
347
Passage of MenofWur
348
Prize Courts on Neutral Territory 349
349
Sale of Prizes and their Safekeeping on Neutral Territory
350
Neutrals and Military Preparation 329 Depots and Factories on Neutral Territory
351
Passage of Bodies of Men intending to enlist
352
Organisation of Hostile Expeditions
353
Building and Fittingout of Vessels intended for Naval Opera tions 356
356
The Alabama Case and the Three Rules of Washington
358
Neutral Asylum to Land Forces and War Material 336 On Neutral Asylum in general
361
Neutral Territory and Prisoners of War
362
Fugitive Soldiers on Neutral Territory
364
Neutral Territory and Fugitive Troops
365
Neutral Territory and War Material of Belligerents
367
Neutral Asylum to Naval Forces 342 Asylum to Naval Forccs in Contradistinction to Asylum to Land Forces
368
Neutral Asylum to Naval Forces Optional
369
Asylum to Naval Forces in Distress
370
Facilities to MenofWar during Asylum
371
Abuse of Asylum to be prohibited
372
Neutral MenofWar as an Asylum
375
Supplies and Loans to Belligerents 349 Supply on the part of Neutrals
376
Supply on the part of Subjects of Neutrals
377
Loans and Subsidies on the part of Neutrals
380
Services to Belligerents 353 Pilotage
382
Transport on the part of Neutrals
383
Information regarding Military and Naval Operations
384
Violation of Neutrality 357 Violation of Neutrality in the narrower and in the wider sense of the Term
387
Neutrals not to acquiesce in Violations of Neutrality com mitted by a Belligerent
388
Case of the General Armstrong
391
Negligence on the part of Neutrals
393
Right of Angary 364 The Obsolete Right of Angary
394
Tho Modern Bight of Angary
395
Right of Angary not deriving from Neutrality
397
CHAPTER III
398
Blockade strategic and commercial
399
Blockade to be Universal
400
Blockade Outwards and Inwards
401
Justification of Blockade
402
Establishment of Blockade 375 Competence to establish Blockade
403
Notification of Blockade
404
Space of Time for Egress of Neutral Vessels
405
Effectiveness of Blockade 379 Effective in Contradistinction to Fictitious Blockade
406
Condition of Effectiveness of Blockade
407
Amount of Danger which creates Effectiveness
409
Cessation of Effectiveness
410
Breach of Blockade 383 Definition of Breach of Blockade
411
What constitutes an Attempt to break Blockade
412
When Ingress is not considered Breach of Blockade
415
When Egress is not considered Breach of Blockade
416
Passage through Unblockaded Canal no Breach of Blockado
417
Penalty for Breach of Blockade
418
Conception of Contraband
420
BECT PAGE 391 Definition of Contraband of War
421
Absolute and conditional Contraband
423
Articles conditionally Contraband
425
Hostile Destination essential to Contraband
429
Articles destined for the Use of the Carrying Vessel
430
Carriage of Contraband 398 Carriage of Contraband Penal by the Municipal Law of Belligerents
431
Direct Carriage of Contraband
432
Circuitous Carriage of Contraband
433
Indirect Carriage of Contraband Doctrine of Continuous Transports
435
Continental Support to the Doctrine of Continuous Trans ports
438
Consequences of Carriage of Contraband 404 Capture for Carriage of Contraband
441
Penalty for Carriage of Contraband
443
CHAPTER V
446
Carriage of Persons for the Enemy
447
Carriage of Diplomatic Persons for the Enemy Case of the Trent
450
Carriage of Despatches for the Enemy
451
for the Enemy suot riOK 411 Capture for carrying Fersonb and Despatches for the Enemy
453
Penalty for carrying Persons and Despatches for the Enemy
454
Seizure of Enemy Persons and Despatches without seizing the Vessel
455
CHAPTER VI
457
Right of Visitation by whom when and where exercised
458
Only Private Vessels can be visited
459
No Universal Rules regarding Mode of Visitation
461
Visit
462
Search
463
Consequences of Resistance to Visitation
464
Resistance by Neutral Convoy
465
Deficiency of Papers
466
Double and False Papers
467
Capture 429 Grounds and Mode of Capture
468
Destruction of Neutral Prizes
469
Ransom and Recapture of Neutral Prizes
472
War Onskan
473
Trial of Captured Neutral Vessels 434 Trial of Captured Vessels a Municipal Matter
474
Result of Trial
475
Trial after Conclusion of Peace
476
Protests and Claims of Neutrals after Trial
477
Foreign Enlistment Act 1870
483
Declaration of Paris 1856
498
International Disputes 1899
505
International Convention with respect to the Laws
519
International Convention 1899 for the Adaptation
530
Declaration concerning l hc Launching of Projectiles
536
The Prise Courts Act 1894
555
Enemy Subjects domiciled abroad 99
567
Reform Projects
585
Wasburne 157
595

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 359 - A neutral Government is bound — First. — To use due diligence to prevent the fitting out, arming, or equipping, within its jurisdiction, of any vessel which it has reasonable ground to believe is intended to cruise or to carry on war against a Power with which it is at peace...
Page 498 - Les blocus, pour être obligatoires, doivent être effectifs, c'est-à-dire maintenus par une force suffisante pour interdire réellement l'accès du littoral de l'ennemi.
Page 174 - The authority of the legitimate power having in fact passed into »nd safety, the hands of the occupant, the latter shall take all the measures in his power to restore, and ensure, as far as possible, public order and safety...
Page 533 - S'il arrivait qu'une des Hautes Parties Contractantes dénonçât la présente Convention, cette dénonciation ne produirait ses effets qu'un an après la notification faite par écrit au Gouvernement des Pays-Bas et communiquée immédiatement par celui-ci à toutes les autres Puissances Contractantes. Cette dénonciation ne produira ses effets qu'à l'égard de la Puissance qui l'aura notifiée.
Page 510 - Chaque partie nomme deux Arbitres, dont un seulement peut être son national ou choisi parmi ceux qui ont été désignés par elle comme membres de la Cour Permanente. Ces Arbitres choisissent ensemble un Surarbitre. En cas de partage des voix, le choix du Surarbitre est confié à une Puissance tierce, désignée de commun accord par les parties.
Page 517 - La présente Convention sera ratifiée dans le plus bref délai possible. Les ratifications seront déposées à La Haye. Il sera dressé du dépôt de chaque ratification un procès-verbal, dont une copie, certifiée conforme, sera remise par la voie diplomatique à toutes les Puissances contractantes.
Page 524 - Les belligérants n'ont pas un droit illimité quant au choix des moyens de nuire à l'ennemi. ART. 23. — Outre les prohibitions établies par des conventions spéciales, il est notamment interdit: a. d'employer du poison ou des armes empoisonées ; b.
Page 486 - State : or (3.) Equips any ship with intent or knowledge, or having 'reasonable cause to believe that the same shall or will be employed in the military or naval service of any foreign State at war with any friendly State...
Page 554 - Court in which the action is brought, at any time pay into Court such sum of money as he thinks fit, whereupon such proceeding and order shall be had and made in and by the Court as may be had and made on the payment of money into Court in an ordinary action ; and if the plaintiff does not succeed in the action, the defendant shall receive such full and reasonable indemnity as to all costs, charges, and expenses incurred in and about the action as may be taxed and allowed by the proper officer...
Page 515 - Les membres du Tribunal ont le droit de poser des questions aux agents et aux conseils des Parties et de leur demander des éclaircissements sur les points douteux. Ni les questions posées, ni les observations faites par les membres du Tribunal pendant le cours des débats ne peuvent être regardées comme l'expression des opinions du Tribunal en général ou de ses membres en particulier.

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