Interpreting the Medical Literature
The fourth edition of this well-written text continues to provide heal th care professionals with an approach to reading and understanding re search articles in medical journals. This concise, highly readable tex t demystifies research literature and helps the reader understand the fundamental principles of epidemiology, applying epidemiologic data, d eveloping skills to evaluate study design and execution, and formulati ng a dissenting opinion. Current and classic examples from medical re search are found throughout the text to illustrate and reinforce key p oints.
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Approaching an Article
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alcohol allocation analysis aspirin assess associated authors azithromycin bacteremia benefits beta-carotene bias biased blood pressure breast cancer Bull Durham's case-control design case-control study cholesterol cohort compared comparison confidence interval confounding control group control subjects controlled trial coronary cross-sectional death diagnostic diarrhea difference drug effect endometrial cancer Engl estimate estrogen evaluated evidence example exposure febrile follow-up fractures heart attack heart disease hospital identify increased intervention investigators JAMA journals levels Lydia Pinkham's measure meta-analysis methodological Modified mortality myocardial infarction null hypothesis observed occur osteoporosis outcome Pap smear patients physical activity physicians placebo population positive potential predictive value prevalence problems questionnaire raloxifene randomized rates readers reduced relationship relative risk researchers Reye syndrome risk factors sample SCORE screening selection sensitivity smoking specificity statistically significant study design Table techniques therapy tients timolol tion tocopherol treatment vaccine validity variables women