Into Complexity: A Pattern-oriented Approach to Stakeholder Communications

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Universal-Publishers, 2010 - Philosophy - 512 pages
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The NWO-programme "the societal aspects of genomics", has called for stronger means of collaboration and deliberative involvement between the various stakeholders of genomics research. Within the project group assembled at the UH, this call was translated to the 'lingua democratica', in which the prerequisites of such deliberative efforts were put to scrutiny. The contribution of this thesis has taken a more or less abstract angle to this task, and sought to develop a vocabulary that can be shared amongst various stakeholders with different backgrounds, interests and stakes for any complex theme, although genomics has more or less been in focus throughout the research. As 'complexity thinking' is currently a theme in both the 'hard' sciences as the social sciences and the humanities, and has always been an issue for professionals, this concept was pivotal in achieving such an inclusive angle. However, in order to prevent that complexity would become fragmented due to disciplinary boundaries, it is essential that those aspects of complexity that seem to return in many discussions would be made clear, and stand out with respect to the complexities of specialisation. The thesis has argued that the concept of 'patterns' applies for these aspects, and they form the backbone of the vocabulary that has been developed. Especially patterns of feedback have been given much attention, as this concept is pivotal for many complex themes. However, although patterns are implicitly or explicitly used in many areas, there is little methodological (and philosophical) underpinning of what they are and why they are able to do what they do. As a result, quite some attention has been given to these issues, and how they relate to concepts such as 'information', 'order' and complexity itself. From these explorations, the actual vocabulary was developed, including the methodological means to use this vocabulary. This has taken the shape of a recursive development of a so-called pattern-library, which has crossed disciplinary boundaries, from technological areas, through biology, psychology and the social sciences, to a topic that is typical of the humanities. This journey across the divide of C.P. Snow s 'two cultures' is both a test for a lingua democratica, as well as aimed to demonstrate how delicate, and balanced such a path must be in order to be effective, especially if one aims to retain certain coherence along the way. Finally, the methodology has been applied in a very practical way, to a current development that hinges strongly on research in genomics, which is trans-humanist movement.
 

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Contents

55 Symbiosis
205
56 Synnecrosis
208
57 Opportunism
210
Birth of Order
211
Wrapping Up
213
Contextual Diminution and the Hourglass Pattern
215
Biology and Language Games
216
Incomplete Learning
218

41 The Game
38
42 The Levels
39
Preparation
41
A PatternOriented Approach to Complexity
42
The lingua democratica
44
Patterns in Complexity
47
Science and Engineering
51
21 Appreciating Nuts and Bolts
55
22 Composition and Decomposition
57
23 Minimal Requirements
59
24 Bias and Focus
61
A Pattern of Organised Complexity
63
31 Information Overload
66
Wrapping Up
67
A Workshop of Complexity
69
Introducing Complexity
70
11 Setting Things Straight
71
12 Rethinking System Theories
73
Complexity
75
21 Uncertainty and Risk
79
22 The Basic Elements of Complexity
82
23 NonLinearity 1
83
24 Aggregation 2
84
25 Diversity 3
85
26 Flows 4
86
27 Building Blocks 5
87
29 Internal Models 7
88
210 Securing
89
Patterns
90
31 Introducing Patterns
92
32 Some Limitations of Patterns
98
A PatternOriented Approach to Complexity
100
41 Perspectives on Complex Systems
101
Wrapping Up
104
A Pattern Library of Feedback
105
Feedback
107
Classic Feedback
109
22 Oscillation
112
From Oscillations to Chaos
115
31 Algorithms
118
On the Edge of Chaos Malthusian Growth
123
41 SelfSimilarity and Scaling Invariance
127
42 The Lorenz Attractor
129
43 Conways Game of Life
130
Autonomy and Reentry
133
51 Massive Parallel Reentry
134
Edgar Morin
137
Wrapping Up
140
Ranking Problems and Networks
141
11 Ranking and Observation
144
12 A Pattern of Difference
146
13 The Zone of Ambiguity
149
On Problems and Problem Solving
151
21 Problem Solving Theory
152
Convergence Inducing Process
156
31 Global Search and Observation
158
Networks
160
41 Divide et Impera
163
42 Adaptation and Adaptability
166
43 Concurrent Problem Solving
167
Friction Space
169
So Whats The Point of All This?
172
Wrapping Up
173
Environments and Evolution
175
Some Characteristics of Our Universe
176
12 Scarcity
179
Evolution Theory
181
Selfishness and Natural Selection
184
31 Selfish Genes
185
32 The Natural Artificer
186
33 What Benefits?
187
34 Autonomy and Autopoiesis
190
35 The Current State of Affairs
191
PAC Genes and Environments
192
Interaction Patterns
198
51 Coexistence
200
53 Altruism
203
54 Parasitism
204
Closing Domains
223
The Hourglass Pattern
228
41 Micro Macro and Machines
229
Patterns in Psychiatric Genomics
237
Passing Consciousness
242
61 Contextual Diminution and the Human Mind
243
Wrapping Up
244
Into Social Systems
245
Tying Some Threads Together
247
Recursive Methodology
248
11 Constructions
249
12 Target and Model
253
13 Modelling as Production System
254
14 Complexity and Simplicity
256
15 Simplicity Locality and Universality
258
16 PAC and the Arrow of Time
261
17 Essences
263
Into Domains
265
The Lingua Democratica
268
31 A Pattern of the Lingua Democratica
271
32 Inference between Domains
273
Wrapping Up
274
Into Social Systems
275
11 PAC and Social Domains
276
Selfish Memes
280
Rational Choice Theory
282
In Friction with Luhmanns Social Systems
284
41 Laws of Form LoF
287
42 Luhmanns Social Systems
289
43 Meaning Systems and Communications
293
Constructing a Bypass
297
A Metis Prerequisite of the Social
302
Tying the Threads Together
305
Agents Domains and Values
308
81 Social Domains and Social Systems
311
82 A Word of Humility
313
A Network of Stakeholders
314
Wrapping Up
316
Technology and Society
319
Stakeholders of Technology
321
A Short History of Technology
322
21 Gene Technology and Nanotechnology
327
Technopoiesis
329
31 Theory and Autonomy
331
32 A Pattern of Technopoiesis
332
Contextualisation of Technology
334
41 Applying some Patterns
339
Two Stakeholders in Technological Debates
340
51 Some Points of Attention
342
52 Some Points of Analysis
344
Wrapping Up
345
Enhancing Human Intelligence
347
11 Some Stakeholders in the Discussions of Intelligence
350
12 Engineering Artificial Intelligence
351
13 The Singularity is Near
352
Bias and Optimality
356
The Structure of the Singularity
357
32 Analysis along the Structural Perspective
360
Uncertainty and Robustness
364
Social Embedding of the Singularity
367
Conclusions
369
Wrapping up
370
Into Normative Professionalisation
371
11 An Evolutionary Thread on Ethics of Technology
375
12 A Structural Perspective of Ethics
377
13 An Evolutionary Thread of Ethics
381
14 Back to Structure
383
15 An Ecological Thread of Ethics
384
A Professional Ethics
391
21 Practical Wisdom
392
Ethical Complexity
395
An Ethics of Technology
397
One Extra Bolt
400
Epilogue
403
Index
479
1
495
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