Introduction to Organic Photochemistry
Introduction to Organic Photochemistry John D. Coyle, The Open University, Milton Keynes The purpose of this book is to provide an introductory account of the major types of organic photochemical reactions, to enable those with a prior knowledge of basic organic chemistry to appreciate the differences between processes which occur photochemically (through an electronically excited state) and those that occur thermally (directly from the electronic ground state). The material is organized according to organic functional groups, in parallel with the approach adopted in most general textbooks on organic chemistry. In this respect it differs from many of the existing, older organic photochemistry texts. The first chapter provides an account of the distinctive features of photochemical reactions, and a physical/mechanistic framework for the descriptions in the rest of the book. The overall emphasis is on organic photoreactions potentially useful in synthesis. The book thus integrates this branch of chemistry with broader aspects of the subject, and introduces the reader to important applications of organic photochemistry.
WHAT IS ORGANIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY?
PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF ALKENES AND RELATED
absorb absorption addend alkane alkene alkyl radical alkynes aromatic compounds aryl aryl ketones benzene biradical carbon carbonyl carbonyl compounds carboxylic acids chemical cleavage concerted reactions conjugated dienes conrotatory cyclic cycloaddition cyclobutene dimerization double bond efficient electrocyclic electron transfer electron-acceptor electronically excited emission esters example excited-state fluorescence formation formed geometrical isomerization give ground ground-state halogen hydrogen abstraction hydrogen atom initial intermediate intersystem crossing intramolecular involves isomerization lead lifetime light lowest excited singlet mechanism mechanistic molecular molecule nitrogen normally nucleophilic occur orbitals organic photochemistry overall pathway phosphorescence photoaddition photoche photochemical reaction photochemistry photocyclization photocycloaddition photon photoreactions photostationary processes quantum yield quenching radical cation rate constant react reactive readily rearrangement ring ring-opening sigmatropic shifts singlet oxygen solution solvent species spectra spectrum stereochemical stilbene studies substitution substrate synthetic temperature thermal reaction tion trans isomer triplet triplet energy triplet sensitizer ultraviolet undergo valence isomers vibrational wavelength