Introduction to Work Study

Front Cover
International Labour Organization, 1992 - Business & Economics - 524 pages
13 Reviews
This highly successful book, which describes the basic techniques of work study as practiced in many parts of the world, has been widely recognized as the best available introduction to the subject for work study practitioners, teachers and students. It provides training in method study and work measurement and covers not only machine shops but also process industries, the services sector and office work. Reference is made throughout to the use of information systems and computerization to solve work study problems. It also covers production management approaches and their relation to work study. Numerous illustrations and examples of work study practice are included as well.
 

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Contents

Productivity and the quality of life
3
Work study and productivity
9
Work study the approach
17
The human factor in the application of work study
25
Working conditions and the working environment
35
Factors influencing the degree of glare produced by a given diffusing fitting or a bare fluorescent lamp unit
48
Relative cost of incandescent and fluorescent lighting
49
Recommended ranges of reflection factor for main interior surfaces
50
The approach to the worker
282
Steps in making a time study
286
Checking the method
288
Breaking the job into elements
289
Deciding on the elements
291
Sample size
292
Stopwatch procedure
294
Rating
297

Distance at which the normal voice can be heard against background noise
52
Temporary hearing threshold shift in dB as a function of duration of exposure to wideband noise
53
Limits of heat exposure
56
The operatormachine interface
63
Ergonomic display design
64
Ergonomic design of controls
66
Method study and the selection of jobs
75
Pareto analysis step 1
77
Pareto analysis step 2
78
Record examine develop
81
The most commonly used method study charts and diagrams
82
Method study symbols
85
Switch rotor assembly
86
Switch rotor assembly
88
Some charting conventions
90
Engine stripping cleaning and degreasing
92
Engine stripping cleaning and degreasing original method
93
Engine stripping cleaning and degreasing
98
Engine stripping cleaning and degreasing improved method
100
Inspecting and marking incoming parts original method
103
Inspecting and marking incoming parts original method
104
Inspecting and marking incoming parts improved method
106
Inspecting and marking incoming parts improved method
107
Movement of workers in the working area
109
A string diagram
110
A simple movement study sheet
111
Storing tiles original method
114
Storing tiles improved method
115
Serving dinners in a hospital ward
118
Serving dinners in a hospital ward
119
Inspection of catalyst in a converter original method
121
Inspection of catalyst in a converter improved method
123
Finish mill casting original method
124
Finish mill casting improved method
125
Crushing bones original method
128
Layout of working area
129
Crushing bones improved method
131
Movements of messenger in office
133
A simple study sheet 135 XIII
135
Material handling
136
Methods and movements at the workplace
139
Normal and maximum working areas
142
Classification of movements
143
Semicircular and circular working arrangement
144
Recommended dimensions for seated tasks
145
Various bins and motioneconomy devices
146
An example of a workstation layout
147
Cutting glass tubes original method
152
Cutting glass tubes improved method
154
Evaluate define install maintain
159
Standard practice sheet
163
A typical learning curve
166
Conclusion
168
Method study in the office
169
The hierarchy of office systems procedures and methods
172
An example of a specimen chart
173
A procedure flow chart
174
AnXchart
178
A personnel record form
179
Part Three Selected production management techniques
185
From idea to final product
189
Computerassisted design CA
190
Reducing component parts in product design
191
Quality control
195
Process within control limits
198
Layout handling and process planning
201
Types of layout
202
Developing the flow for a number of products using the cross chart
204
Manoeuvrability of robots
209
Different possibilities of handling the same object
210
Developments in manufacturing technology
211
The evolution of car painting
213
Computerintegrated manufacturing CIM
215
Changing functional layout to a line or product layout
217
A block diagram in line manufacturing
218
A flow diagram in line manufacturing
219
Production planning and control
221
Master production plan
223
Bar diagram or Gantt chart
224
CPM activities
225
A network diagram using normal times
226
Normal and crash times and costs for performing activities
227
A network diagram using crash times
228
Inventory control
229
The relationship between total costs to order and to carry and the number of orders placed
230
Reorder point and buffer stock
232
A simplified JIT Kanban scheme
233
A simplified illustration of Kanban movement
234
Maintenance
237
Part Four Work measurement
241
General remarks on work measurement
243
The uses of work measurement
246
The basic procedure
247
Work measurement
248
Work sampling and structured estimating
249
A few words about sampling
250
Distribution curve showing probabilities of combinations when large samples are used
251
Determination of sample size
252
Making random observations
254
Nomogram for determining number of observations
255
Table of random numbers
256
Conducting the study
257
Example of a simple work sampling record sheet
259
Rated work sampling
260
Using work sampling
261
Structured estimating
262
The equipment
265
A decimalminute stopwatch
267
Time study boards
269
Time study forms
270
An electronic study board
271
Generalpurpose time study top sheet
272
Continuation sheet for generalpurpose time study front
274
Simple type of short cycle study form
275
Short cycle study form front
276
Short cycle study form back
277
Study summary sheet
278
Analysis of studies sheet
279
Other equipment
280
Selecting and timing the job
281
The average worker
299
Distribution of times taken by workers to perform a given job
300
Standard rating and standard performance
301
Effect of ineffective time on performance
304
Comparing the observed rate of working with the standard
305
What is rated?
306
Factors affecting the rate of working
307
Scales of rating
309
Examples of various rates of working on the principal rating scales
310
How the rating factor is used
311
Recording the rating
312
From study to standard time
313
Preparing the study summary sheet
314
The calculation of basic time
315
The selected time
316
Effect of extension on the time of an element
317
A graphical method of selecting basic time
321
Completing the study summary sheet
323
How many studies?
324
An example of a study summary sheet produced using electronic capture devices
325
Cumulative average basic times for a constant element
326
The analysis of studies sheet
327
Work content
328
Allowances
329
Calculation of allowances
330
Relaxation allowances
331
Other allowances
333
The standard time
336
Work measurement in the office
337
Setting time standards for work with machines
343
Explanatory diagram of machine time
345
Restricted work
346
Result of method study on milling operation
347
One worker and one machine
348
Improved method
349
Calculation of relaxation allowances
350
Four operations with machine elements
352
Unoccupied time allowance
353
Multiple machine work
356
Machine interference
358
Example of a time study
361
Card giving details of elements and break points
362
Sketch of part and of workplace layout
363
Time study top sheet
364
Time study continuation sheet page 2
366
Time study continuation sheet page 3
368
Working sheet
370
Study summary sheet
372
Extract from the analysis of studies sheet 374 XV
374
Calculation of relaxation allowance
376
Final calculation of relaxation allowance
378
Machine time and allowances
379
Predetermined time standards
381
Origins
382
Advantages of PTS systems
383
Different forms of PTS systems
384
Basic motions
385
Scope of application of data
386
Use of PTS systems
387
MTM2 data card
388
Application of PTS systems
394
Fitting a nut and washer on a stud
396
Base assembly
397
Base assembly workplace layout
398
MTM2 analysis sheet base assembly
399
MethodsTime Measurement application data in tmu
401
Standard data
409
Developing the standard data
410
Restricted walking
413
Restricted walking
414
Base times for crosscutting wood of varying width and thickness
415
Use of PTS systems to develop standard data
417
Factor curve for crosscutting wood of varying width and thickness
418
Standard data elements in light engineering and assembly work
419
Sequence of elements in a power press operation
421
Basic elements of power press work
422
Example of standard data determined by MTM2 tabular presentation
423
presentation
424
Standard data application form
425
Externally sourced standard data
426
Computerized measurement systems 427 XI
427
Deriving a computerized standard time for an operation
428
MEZA scheme for developing standard data
429
PLAZET scheme for deriving standard times of operations
430
The use of time standards
431
The work specification
432
The standard unit of work
434
Production planning and the utilization of plant and human resources
435
Estimating production costs
436
Standard costing and budgetary control
437
Organization of an information system associated with work measurement
438
Minimum data required for work measurement and labour control records
439
Part Five From analysis to synthesis
441
New forms of work organization
443
Design of individual work roles
445
Some examples of the building of buffer stock in manufacturing operations
450
Design of group work in production
452
Machinepaced line
454
Workerpaced line
455
Automated process
456
Concentrated operation
457
Assembly of motor car engines
459
Line grouping and parallel grouping
460
Schematic diagram of a floworiented group
462
Flow group for the manufacture of pump axles
463
Design of productoriented organizations
464
Design of enterpriseoriented organizations
466
Manufacture of electric motors
467
Some concluding remarks
471
Part Six Appendices
475
Glossary of terms used
477
Properties of various industrial floor surfaces 43
480
Checklist of useful questions in developing a new method of work
483
Example of tables used to calculate relaxation allowances
489
Conversion factors
499
Selected bibliography
503
Index
507
Arrangement and storage of tools 44
514
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