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EVOLUTION OF SPECIES
REGENERATION AND GROWTH OF FOREST TREES
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accumulation acre air mass air temperature animals aspen balsam fir basal area birch bole bulk density capillary cell classification clay climate Coniferous conifers crown Douglas fir drained soils eastern white pine effect energy environment estimate evaporation evenaged factors feet forest floor forest soil forest stands fungi genetic genotypes growing season Hardwood height growth horizon hybrid inches increase insects land layers leaf litter loam loblolly pine longleaf pine maple measure mineral mycorrhizae nitrogen number of trees occur percent period photosynthesis physiographic location plants ponderosa pine poorly drained population precipitation pressure produce rainfall red spruce region relationship relative reproduction result root seed seedlings shortleaf pine slash pine slopes snow soil moisture soil water solar radiation spruce stand density subsoil sugar maple Table texture throughfall transpiration tree growth tree species U.S.D.A. Forest Service unevenaged vegetation watershed white pine wind wood