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Characterizing Validity and Invalidity
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adultery ambiguity animals argu argument is valid assume atomic formulae atomic sentences basic capital punishment cause connector Cookie Monster counterexample deﬁne deﬁnition denotes Derived Valid Argument desires dogs Euthyphro everything evil exists example Exercises expression false conclusion fetus ﬁnd ﬁrst individual following arguments formula by lines function given gods Hence Hint If-then Introduction immoral invalid jimmy Carter jones justiﬁed Kangaroos least as preferred least option male marriage married meaning Meletus ment monadic logic moral objects one’s ordered pair person piety pious possible situation quantiﬁers reason relation symbol rules of proof rules of semantics second individual selﬁsh sexual intercourse Socrates someone spouse statements strategy symbolic notation thing tion translate true assumptions true or false truth values truth-functional truth-functional logic universe of discourse wrong for citizens wrong for society zeﬂ