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INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION OF TERMS
THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
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activity coefficient adiabatic alloy aqueous solution atm pressure atoms binary Calculate cell reaction component condensed phases Consider constant pressure constant volume curve decrease determined drawn as line electrode Ellingham diagram enthalpy entropy change equals equation free energy change function gas mixture gas phase gases Gibbs free energy gives heat reservoir hence Henry's law hydrogen ideal gas increase integral internal energy intersect irreversible isothermal isothermal process joules joules/degree kilojoules liquid iron liquid solutions melting temperature metal microstates molar free energy molar volume number of moles obtained occurs oxidation oxygen oxygen pressure partial molar partial pressure particles phase diagram potential quantity Raoult's law Raoultian ratio reactants reaction equilibrium relationship reversible process reversibly RT\n saturated saturated vapor pressure shown in Fig solid solution species standard free energy thermodynamic total pressure vapor pressure variation water vapor wustite zero