Introductory Meteorology

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Page 102 - He noticed objects above the earth tend to rotate relative to the earth's rotation ... to the right in the northern hemisphere, to the left in the southern. The Coriolis Effect is in force in outer space, too.
Page v - States meteorology is included •1- in the course of study outlined by the Committee on Education and Special Training of the War Department for Students
Page 68 - Hence, so far as this effect alone is concerned, a mountain station, 1000 meters, say, above sea level, will have the greatest mass of air above it when the atmosphere below is warmest, or most expanded, and the least when the lower atmosphere is coldest, or most contracted — that is to say, this effect tends to produce, at such stations, barometric maxima during afternoons, and minima about dawn. There is, however, another effect resulting from the volume expansion and contraction of the atmosphere...
Page 70 - Repetition the following day of the forced disturbance in synchronism with, and therefore at such time as to reenforce, the free vibrations. The series of disturbances is continuous, forced by day and free by night, but the resulting amplitudes of the barometric changes are limited, through friction and through the absence of perfect synchronism, to comparatively small values. Each point upon the atmospheric shell receives at every alternate swing a forced impulse in phase with the free vibration,...
Page 110 - Asia, are the most pronounced of all, but by no means the simplest,1 and have been most fully studied), China, the Caspian Sea, Australia, and portions of Africa. In the United States the chief monsoon effects are in the eastern portion, where the prevailing winds are northwest in winter and southwest in summer, and in Texas, where the prevailing winds are also northwest in winter, but southeast in summer. Trade Winds. — As previously stated, in equatorial ocean regions, or, roughly, over the oceans...
Page 5 - Hydrogen o.oi 2. That at the surface of the earth water vapor supplies 1.2 per cent, of the total number of gas molecules present. 3. That the absolute humidity rapidly decreases, under the influence of lower temperatures, with increase of elevation, to a negligible amount at or below the level of 10 kilometres.
Page 105 - ... with east winds again prevailing (certainly at times) at still greater elevations. The cause of this layer of equatorial west wind has never been explained. Indeed, it may be only a local and temporary phenomenon. 3. That layers of air in which the temperature increases with increase of elevation, and others in which the temperature is constant, exist at different levels, especially through the first two or three kilometres.
Page 94 - ... spectral arcs is visible, and never more, except from an eminence. The records of close observations of rainbows soon show that not even the colors are always the same; neither is the band of any color of constant angular width ; nor the total breadth of the several colors at all uniform; similarly the purity and brightness of the different colors are subject to large variations. The greatest contrast, perhaps, is between the sharply-defined brilliant rainbow of the retreating thunderstorm and...
Page 112 - ... velocity must so increase, according to the law of the conservation of areas, that at about 16 N. or S. its angular velocity will be the same as that of the earth, and itself, therefore, be moving only poleward in the plane of the meridian. The exact latitude, however, at which the antitrades move directly poleward depends upon the position of the thermal equator and therefore varies with the seasons. Thus during August and September, when the centre of the doldrums is, roughly, 8 N., the...
Page 75 - ... the temperature of the water, roughly in proportion to the saturation pressure at that temperature, provided the general humidity of the air is low. When, however, the water surface is colder than the dew-point temperature of the air the evaporation becomes negative; that is, condensation occurs. When the air is colder than the water surface, evaporation may continue into it after saturation has been reached and thereby produce fog. the process being one of distillation and condensation. Even...

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