Iron Manufacture of Gt. Br. Theoretically & Practically Considered

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1863 - Iron - 326 pages

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Page 1 - IRON ORES. The ores from which crude iron is smelted in Great Britain may be divided into four great classes : the argillaceous ores of the coal formations, - having clay, but sometimes silica, as the chief impurity
Page 271 - it is impossible to exercise too much care in the selection of the crude iron, as well as in the subsequent stages of the manufacture.
Page 1 - class is subdivided into the red and brown hematites, the ores of the oolitic formation, the white carbonates, and the magnetic oxides. The
Page 166 - not, in general, one-fourth of that which has been asserted to have been effected. Some have even gone so far as to state that, by the mere substitution of heated air for the cold air formerly used,
Page 297 - than at present, would enable them to maintain their supremacy in the trade. The rich carbonaceous ores of Scotland or Wales, mixed with the hematites of Lancashire or "West Cumberland, or other similar ores, reduced in suitably constructed furnaces may be converted into malleable iron at costs considerably under those incurred with the blast furnace and subsequent
Page 297 - been subjected to the necessary heat in a closed supplementary chamber, whereby the combustion of the carbon is slowly carried on at the expense of the oxygen of the ore, but at a sufficiently low temperature to avoid oxidizing the mass. From this chamber it is drawn as required into the furnace, balled up and shingled, the
Page 231 - is required for the maintenance of combustion. In the refinery the blast answers a double purpose. It creates and maintains an intensely high temperature, fusing the crude iron with great rapidity, and promotes the rapid
Page 297 - process is unnecessary with the minimum volume of carbon consumed in the deoxidation of the ore in the close chamber. Ground carbonaceous ore may be substituted for the carbonaceous matter, and mixed in the necessary proportions with the same ore calcined, or with raw
Page 262 - one pair for roughing down the bloom, the other for finishing it into a bar. The grooves used in the roughing pair are either oval, gothic, or diamondshaped ; generally the first two or three grooves are gothic and the other diamond. The finishing rolls are usually turned with grooves to produce flat bars from 3 to 7 inches wide by
Page 297 - the capital necessary for carrying on operations on a large scale with blast furnaces, and attendant refining and puddling furnaces. To establish on a sound basis works consisting of blast furnaces, refineries, puddling forges, and rolling mills, a capital of at least

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