Iron, steel, and other alloys

Front Cover
 

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Contents

COOLING CURVES 10 Physical Properties of Individual Alloys Cooling Curves
17
Definition of Motherliquor and Mothermetal
19
Distortions of Cooling Curves
20
Malobservation
22
Ease of Thermal Studies
23
Selective freezing
24
Other Features of Cooling Curves
25
Freezing Covers a Considerable Range
26
Selective and Unselective Freezing
28
Freezing of a 20Per Cent Salt Solution
29
Freezing of a Eutectic Solution
30
Eutectic and Cryohydrate
31
Reasons for the Properties of the Eutectic
33
Surfusion
35
Why the Eutectic is Composite
38
Why the Eutectic is Not of Simple Atomic Proportions
39
Microstructure
46
FREEZINGPOINT CURVES
52
Freezingpoint Curve of Salt Water
58
If two Metals are Soluble in Each Other when Solid some
64
SECTION PAGE 56 One Member of the Series a Eutectic
66
That Eutectic Not Composite
67
The Other Alloys of the Series Noneutectiferous
68
posite
69
Shape of the Cooling Curve
70
If the Layers Freezing Out Reach the Saturationpoint before all the Mothermetal is Frozen a Eutectic Should Form
72
That Eutectic Should Be Composite
73
Freezingpoint Curve of such Alloys
74
Meaning and General Conditions of Equilibrium
75
Equilibrium in a Solid Binary Alloy if the Reciprocal Solubility of the Component Metals is Limited General Assumptions
77
Cases 1 and 2 Metal B is theoretically Capable of Dissolving the Whole of Metal A Present when Both Are Solid
78
Case 3 There is more of each Metal Present than the other Metal is Theoretically Capable of Dissolving
79
If the two Solutions are Saturated the System is in Equilibrium
80
The Constituents of the Eutectic Should Be Saturated with Each Other 84
84
The Structure to be Expected from these Conditions in a Eutectiferous Alloy
85
Segregation
86
Abnormal Segregation
87
Modifications of this Structure
88
SECTION PAGE
90
The Deposition is in Layers though in Distorted ones
92
Landlocking Type of Deposition
93
Segregation is both Microscopic and Macroscopic
94
Progressive Variation in the Microscopic Segregation
97
Approach towards one or the other of these Types
99
Diffusion Tends to Lessen this Segregation
100
Diffusion Lessens both Microscopic and Macroscopic Segrega tion
101
Freezing Differentiates Diffusion Equalizes
102
In Particular Rapid Freezing Should Restrain Macroscopic Segregation
106
Taking the Two Periods Jointly what Procedure in Freezing
108
Solubility Falls with the Temperature
115
Case 4 For the Molten State Reciprocal Solubility is Unlimited
121
Relative Position of the Saturationpoint Curve for the Solid
126
in Subcase 5BP The Two Metals When Solid are Somewhat
132
Reasons for this Curve
138
Temperaturecomposition Curve of the Layers in the Act
144
Meaning of Superior Analysis
151
vii
152
Series of which One Member is a Definite Chemical Com
158
General Classification of Iron and Steel
167
Source of the Confusion in our Nomenclature
173
Summary
188
SECTION PAGE
191
Region I ABCF Molten Solution of Carbon in Iron
197
Regions IV and VII Constitution of Iron at 1050 in the Dif
204
The Role of Silicon
210
Transformation Parallel with Freezing
216
THE HEATTREATMENT OF STEEL AND CAST IRON SECTION PAGE 195 The Heattreatment of Steel and Cast Iron
217
Processes Operating Chiefly Through Control of the Proximate Constitution 196 Deformations of the Cooling Curves by Lag
218
The Recalescence
219
The Hardening and Tempering of Steel
221
The Hardening Increases as the Quenching Temperature Rises through the Critical Range but it is Independent of the Tem perature above that Range
223
The Hardening Increases with the Rapidity of Cooling with out Limit
225
Simile to the Struggle between Transformation and Resistance
228
Evidence Supporting this Theory
229
The Tempering of Hardened Steel
230
The Annealing of Hardened Steel
231
Why the Rate of Cooling after Tempering is Immaterial
234
Verification of the Loss of the Hardening Power at the Re calescence
235
Stress in Hardened Steel
236
Simile to Explain Internal Stress
237
The Heattreatment of Steel Processes Operating Chiefly Through Control of the Structure 212 Importance to the Engineer
241
Heatrefining Defined
242
A Coarse Fracture Suggests a Coarse Structure
244
General Laws Concerning Structure and Temperature
245
Heatrefining
251
2174 To find the Temperature of Heatrefining
255
Burning
257
21SA Why do not Ingots and other Castings Burn in Cooling through the Burning Range?
260
Mechanical Refining
262
219A Finishing Temperature
264
SECTION PAGE 2igB Further Consideration of the Influence of Tmai on the Physical Properties
267
The Heattreatment of Cast Iron 220 The Heattreatment of Cast Iron
276
Stable Equilibrium
288
Reversibility and Lag
289
Hardened Steel Illustrates Irreversibility 290 236 Why Irreversibility Implies Absence of Equilibrium
291
Terminology of the Phase Rule 237 Component and Phase
293
Examples of Component and Phase A The Components are Elements
294
B Examples in which the Components are Chemical Com pounds
295
Allotropic Modifications are Distinct Phases
297
Physical Actions
298
The Phase Rule
299
Examples to Test the Phase Rule
300
SECTIoN PAGE 248 Tin in the Act of Freezing
302
Water in the Act of Freezing
303
Leadtin Alloy in the Act of Selective Freezing
304
The same Leadtin Alloy Composition G at the Freezing point of the Eutectic
307
The Ironcarbon Compounds
309
The Phase Rule Applies only to Systems Properly So Called
310
The Phase Rule in one Aspect is Qualitative not Quantitative
311
PROGRESS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL BETWEEN 1880 AND 1900
313
Alloy Steels
316
Manganese Steel
317
Chrome Steel
323
Tungsten Steel
324
Molybdenum Steel
325
2054 Classification of Processes
329
Extraction of Iron from its Ores 266 The Blastfurnace Process
330
The Handling of Raw Materials
331
Handling the Molten Cast Iron
332
Preservation of the Furnace Walls
336
Blastfurnace Gas Engines
337
Hotblast Stoves
338
The Increase in the Rate of Production
342
Conversion into Wrought Iron and Steel 273 Manufacture of Wrought Iron
343
The Puddling Process
344
The Openhearth Process
347
The Siemens Furnace
350
New Varieties of the Openhearth Process
354
The BertrandThiel Process
355
The Monell Process
356
Direct Metal and the Mixer
357
The Carcasting System
358
283A Increase in the Rate of Production of a Pair of Bessemer Con verters
361
The Basic Bessemer Process
362
Darbys Recarburizing Process
364
Comparison of Processes
365
Mechanical Treatment 288 Defects in Steel Ingots
366
Pipes Sauveurs Process
368
Segregation
372
Draft Fluid Compression of Steel Ingots
373
Heating Furnaces
375
The Continuous Rollingmill
378
Hammers and Hydraulic Presses
379
Cost of Manufacture
380
THE BLASTFURNACE 298 The Blastfurnace
384
Chief Functions of the Blastfurnace
388
Functions of the Fuel
391
The Metallurgical Management of the Blastfurnace
392
Means of Regulating the Strength of the Deoxidizing Action
396
The Hearth Temperature
398
Influence of the Slag Meltingpoint on the Hearth Temperature
399
Regulation of Meltingpoint of Blastfurnace Slag by Means of its Composition
402
Direct Chemical Effect of the Limecontent of the Slag
405
The Effect of Most Variables on the Siliconcontent is the Opposite of that on the Sulphurcontent
406
METALLURGICAL GAS FURNACES SECTION PAGE 311 Gasfiring and Directfiring
407
Gasfiring
408
Purpose of Gasification
409
The Advantages of Gasfiring
411
Fuel Economy
414
Comparison of Regenerative and Recuperative Furnaces
416
The Siemens System Catches the Heat on the Right Side
417
The Value of Gas Regeneration
418
The Progressive Rise in Temperature in Regenerative Furnaces
422
The Siemens Gas Producer
423
The Taylor Gas Producer
425
The Duff Gas Producer
428
The Use of Steam in the Producer
429
APPENDIX I
431
Case 3
433
Case 4
434
Actual Genesis of White and Gray Cast Iron
435
General Diagram of the Constitution and Properties of Cast Iron of 4 00 per cent Carbon
437
APPENDIX II
440
Definitions of the Various Classes of Iron and Steel
442
The Boundary between Steel and Iron
447
APPENDIX IV
449
The Mond Gas Producer
453
The Gayley Dryblast Process
457
Reasons for the Fuel Saving
458
Discussion Importance of Initial Gas Temperature in Heating Processes with a Critical Temperature
460
341A Equation 35 Tested
463
341S Importance of the Critical Temperature in the Blastfurnace Process
467
Note on Sorbite and the Other Stages of Transition between Austenite and Pearlite
475
Copyright

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 448 - Gray Pig Iron and Gray Cast Iron. — Pig iron and cast iron in the fracture of which the iron itself is nearly or quite concealed by graphite, so that the fracture has the gray color of graphite.
Page 445 - Cast Iron. — Iron containing so much carbon or its equivalent that it is not malleable at any temperature. The committee recommends drawing the line between cast iron and steel at 2.20 per cent carbon. Cast Steel. — The same as crucible steel; obsolete, and confusing; the terms " crucible steel " or " tool steel
Page 171 - Steel. — Iron which is malleable at least in some one range of temperature and, in addition, is either (a) cast into an initially malleable mass; or, (b) is capable of hardening greatly by sudden cooling; or, (c) is both so cast and so capable of hardening.
Page 446 - ... greatly when cooled suddenly and completely from a red heat. The word is rarely used in English, but "mild steel" or "low carbon steel" or "soft steel" is generally used in its place. In America the line between soft steel and half-hard steel is usually drawn at a carbon content of about 0,20 per cent.
Page 447 - This name is also applied loosely to molten cast iron which is about to be so cast into pigs or is in a condition in which it could readily be cast into pigs.
Page 447 - The common but inexcusable term we regret to say is " malleable," pronounced " mallable," used as a substantive. Those with some respect for their mother tongue, if asked of what material a malleable casting was composed, would generally use a circumlocution. MALLEABLE IRON, the same as wrought iron. Used in Great Britain, but not in the United States, except carelessly as meaning "malleable cast iron" (vulgar "malleable"). MALLEABLE PIG IRON, an American trade name for the pig iron suitable for...
Page 445 - The committee recommends drawing the line between cast iron and steel at 2.20 per cent carbon for the reason that this appears from the results of Carpenter and Keeling to be the critical percentage of carbon corresponding to the point " a " in the diagrams of Roberts-Austen and Roozeboom.
Page 295 - The components are the entities in play, the entities of which we are studying the reciprocal behavior ; the phases are the states, physical and chemical, in which these components exist, and into which they pass.
Page 446 - Refined Cast Iron. — Cast iron which has had most of its silicon removed in the refinery furnace, but still contains so much carbon as to be distinctly cast iron. Shear Steel. — Steel, usually in the form of bars, made from blister steel by shearing it into short lengths, piling, and welding these by rolling or hammering them at a welding heat. If this process of shearing, piling, etc., is repeated, the product is called "double shear steel.
Page 444 - Cast Iron. — Generically, iron containing so much carbon or its equivalent that it is not malleable at any temperature. Specifically, cast iron in the form of castings other than pigs, or remelted cast iron suitable for casting into such castings, as distinguished from pig iron, ie, cast iron in pigs.

Bibliographic information