Iron, steel, and other alloys

Front Cover
Sauveur & Whiting, 1903 - Technology & Engineering - 457 pages
 

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Contents

COOLING CURVES 10 Physical Properties of Individual Alloys Cooling Curves
17
Definition of Motherliquor and Mothermetal
19
Distortions of Cooling Curves
20
Malobservation
22
Ease of Thermal Studies
23
Selective Freezing
24
Other Features of Cooling Curves
25
Freezing Covers a Considerable Range
26
Selective and Unselective Freezing
28
Freezing of a 20Per Cent Salt Solution
29
Freezing of a Eutectic Solution
30
Eutectic and Cryohydrate
31
Reasons for the Properties of the Eutectic
33
Surfusion
35
Why the Eutectic is Composite
38
Why the Eutectic is Not of Simple Atomic Proportions
39
342 Precaution as to the Term Excesssubstance
40
35A Reasons for the Spherulitic Structure of Certain Eutectics
41
Influence of the Structure of the Eutectic
43
Stratification According to Density
44
Microstructure
46
Definition
51
FREEZINGPOINT CURVES 40 Physical Properties of Series of Alloys or the General System in which the Changes in any Given Critical Point or Cri...
52
Twofold Aspect of the VCurves
53
Prolongation of the VCurves beyond their Apex
54
Other Critical Curves for Temperature and Composition
57
Freezingpoint Curve of Salt Water
58
Cooling and Freezingpoint Curves Shown Simultaneously
59
If two Metals are Insoluble in Each Other when Solid all their Alloys Should Be Eutectiferous
62
Why this Eutectic is Composite
63
If two Metals are Soluble in Each Other when Solid some or even all of their Alloys Should Be Noneutectiferous
64
Reasons for this Genesis and Constitution 54 Freezing Selective but the Selection Should Not Be Rigid
65
Heterogeneousness of Solid Solu tions
66
That Eutectic Not Composite
67
The Other Alloys of the Series Noneutectiferous
68
If the Reciprocal Solubility of two Metals when Solid is Limited the Series of their Alloys Should be Eutectiferous in the Middle but not at its Ends an...
69
Shape of the Cooling Curve
70
If the Layers Freezing Out Reach the Saturationpoint before all the Mothermetal is Frozen a Eutectic Should Form
72
That Eutectic Should Be Composite
73
Freezingpoint Curve of such Alloys
74
Boundaries of the Eutectiferous Range
75
Equilibrium in a Solid Binary Alloy if the Reciprocal Solubility of the Component Metals is Limited General Assumptions
77
Cases 1 and 2 Metal B is theoretically Capable of Dissolving the Whole of Metal A Present when Both Are Solid
78
Case 3 There is more of each Metal Present than the other Metal is Theoretically Capable of Dissolving
79
If the two Solutions are Saturated the System is in Equilibrium
80
The Constituents of the Eutectic Should Be Saturated with Each Other
84
The Structure to be Expected from these Conditions in a Eutectiferous Alloy
85
Segregation
86
Abnormal Segregation
87
Modifications of this Structure
88
SECTION PAGE
90
The Deposition is in Layers though in Distorted ones
92
Landlocking Type of Deposition
93
Segregation is both Microscopic and Macroscopic
94
Progressive Variation in the Microscopic Segregation
97
Approach towards one or the other of these Types
99
83A Conditions Affecting the Degree of Residual Segregation 99 84 Diffusion Tends to Lessen this Segregation
100
Diffusion Lessens both Microscopic and Macroscopic Segrega tion
101
Freezing Differentiates Diffusion Equalizes
102
SECTION PAGE
108
Case 1 The Rate of Cooling is Artificially Variable
109
The Rate of Freezing and that of Subsequent Cooling May Shift
115
In This and All Like Cases the Saturationpoint Curves Pass
121
Soluble in Each Other
125
Subcase 5BP The Two Metals When Solid are Somewhat
132
Reasons for this Curve
138
Temperaturecomposition Curve of the Layers in the Act
144
Meaning of Superior Analysis
151
vii
152
Series of which One Member is a Definite Chemical Com
158
General Classification of Iron and Steel
166
Source of the Confusion in our Nomenclature
173
Summary
188
SECTItN PAGE
191
Position of the Steel Castiron Boundary as Related to
195
Region IX SPfh Pearlite and Cementite
202
The Role of Silicon
210
Transformation Parallel with Freezing
216
THE HEATTREATMENT OF STEEL AND CAST IRON SECTION PAGE 195 The Heattreatment of Steel and Cast Iron
217
Processes Operating Chiefly Through Control of the Proximate Const1tution 196 Deformations of the Cooling Curves by Lag
218
The Recalescence
219
The Hardening and Tempering of Steel
221
The Hardening Increases as the Quenching Temperature Rises through the Critical Range but it is Independent of the Tem perature above that Range
223
The Hardening Increases with the Rapidity of Cooling with out Limit
225
Simile to the Struggle between Transformation and Resistance 228 203 Evidence Supporting this Theory
229
The Tempering of Hardened Steel
230
The Annealing of Hardened Steel
231
A Simile to Explain Tempering and Annealing 231 207 Why the Rate of Cooling after Tempering is Immaterial
234
Verification of the Loss of the Hardening Power at the Re calescence
235
218 Why do not Ingots and other Castings Burn in Cooling through the Burning Range?
260
Finishing Temperature
264
SECTItN PAGE 219B Further Consideration of the Influence of TmttX on the Physical Properties
267
The Heattreatment of Cast Iron 220 The Heattreatment of Cast Iron
276
The Reactions which should Theoretically Occur in Freezing and Cooling of such a Cast Iron
277
Reactions in the Freezing and Cooling of Typical White Cast Iron
278
The Chilling of Cast Iron
279
The Annealing of Chilled Castings
280
Manufacture of Malleable Castings
281
THE PHASE RULE 228 In General
283
The Value of the Phase Rule
285
An Example of Unstable Equilibrium
286
Stable Equilibrium
288
Reversibility and Lag
289
Hardened Steel Illustrates Irreversibility
290
Why Irreversibility Implies Absence of Equilibrium
291
Terminology of the Phase Rule 237 Component and Phase
293
Examples of Component and Phase A The Components are Elements
294
B Examples in which the Components are Chemical Com pounds
295
Allotropic Modifications are Distinct Phases
297
Physical Actions
298
The Phase Rule
300
Saltwater above the Freezingpoint
301
Saltice
303
Leadtin Alloy in the Act of Selective Freezing
304
The Ironcarbon Compounds
309
The Phase Rule Applies only to Systems Properly So Called
310
The Phase Rule in one Aspect is Qualitative not Quantitative
311
PROGRESS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL BETWEEN 1880 AND 1900
313
Alloy Steels
316
Manganese Steel
317
Chrome Steel
323
Tungsten Steel
324
Molybdenum Steel
325
2654 Classification of Processes
329
Extraction of Iron from its Ores 266 The Blastfurnace Process
330
The Handling of Raw Materials
331
Handling the Molten Cast Iron
332
Preservation of the Furnace Walls
336
Blastfurnace Gas Engines
337
Hotblast Stoves
338
The Increase in the Rate of Production
342
Conversion into Wrought Iron and Steel 273 Manufacture of Wrought Iron
343
The Puddling Process
345
The Openhearth Process
347
The Siemens Furnace
350
New Varieties of the Openhearth Process
354
The BertrandThiel Process
355
The Monell Process
356
Direct Metal and the Mixer
357
The Carcasting System
359
283A Increase in the Rate of Production of a Pair of Bessemer Con verters 361
361
The Basic Bessemer Process
362
Darbys Recarburizing Process
364
Comparison of Processes
365
Mechanical Treatment 288 Defects in Steel Ingots
366
Blowholes
368
Segregation
372
Draft Fluid Compression of Steel Ingots 373 293 Heating Furnaces
375
The Continuous Rollingmill 378 295 Hammers and Hydraulic Presses
379
Cost of Manufacture
380
THE BLASTFURNACE 298 The Blastfurnace
384
Chief Functions of the Blastfurnace
388
Functions of the Fuel
391
Chemical Reactions in the Blastfurnace Reduction of the Iron 391 302 The Metallurgical Management of the Blastfurnace 392 303 Importance of the...
392
Means of Regulating the Strength of the Deoxidizing Action 396 305 The Hearth Temperature
398
Influence of the Slag Meltingpoint on the Hearth Temperature 399 307 Regulation of Meltingpoint of Blastfurnace Slag by Means of its Composition
402
Direct Chemical Effect of the Limecontent of the Slag
405
The Effect of Most Variables on the Siliconcontent is the Opposite of that on the Sulphurcontent 406 310 Relative Promptness of Different Methods ...
406
METALLURGICAL GAS FURNACES SECTION PAGE 311 Gasfiring and Directfiring
407
Directfiring
408
Purpose of Gasification
409
The Advantages of Gasfiring
411
Fuel Economy
414
Comparison of Regenerative and Recuperative Furnaces
416
The Siemens System Catches the Heat on the Right Side
417
The Value of Gas Regeneration
421
The Progressive Rise in Temperature in Regenerative Furnaces
422
The Siemens Gas Producer
423
The Taylor Gas Producer
425
The Duff Gas Producer
428
The Use of Steam in the Producer
429
Further Note on the Constitution of Gray Iron Case 1
431
Case 3
433
Case 4
434
Actual Genesis of White and Gray Cast Iron
435
General Diagram of the Constitution and Properties of Cast Iron of 4 00 per cent Carbon
437
Eutectoid instead of SDolic
440
In Particular Rapid Freezing Should Restrain Macroscopic Segregation 106
449

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 170 - Steel. — Iron which is malleable at least in some one range of temperature, and in addition is either (a) cast into an initially malleable mass, or (//') is capable of hardening greatly by sudden cooling, or (c) is both so cast and so capable of hardening.
Page 171 - Irons, those which owe their properties chiefly to the presence of an element (or elements) other than carbon.
Page 293 - The components are the entities in play, the entities of which we are studying the reciprocal behavior ; the phases are the states, physical and chemical, in which these components exist, and into which they pass.
Page 5 - First, the columnar structure familiar to us in the Palisades of the Hudson, the Giant's Causeway, and like rock-masses, forming enormous columns, we find reproduced both in metals and in ice. The columns of the Palisades were formed during the slow cooling of the rock-mass which they form; and they stand upright, ie, with their length at right angles with their upper surface, which was the cooling surface, the surface through which the heat escaped from them while they were cooling down and changing...
Page 177 - PEARUTE, an aeolic or quasi-eutectic ( 148), consisting of interstratified plates of ferrite and cementite, in the ratio of about six parts by weight of the former to one of the latter, as inferred from its containing about 0.90 per cent of carbon. The exact composition of pearlite is still in dispute, and I adopt this number of 0.90 per cent only provisionally and for the purpose of fixing our ideas.
Page 171 - Castings made from iron which when first made is in the condition of cast iron, and is made malleable by subsequent treatment without fusion.
Page 160 - What are the iron and steel of commerce and industry? Examined under the microscope they prove to be composite or granitic substances, intimate mechanical mixtures or conglomerates of microscopic particles of certain quite distinct, well denned, simple substances, in widely varying proportions.
Page 268 - TENSILE STRENGTH POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH ELASTIC LIMIT POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH ELONGATION PER CENT IN 8 INCHES REDUCTION OF AREA PER CENT 750- c. 28.353 28,657 28,529 30,064 19,948 18,130 12,142 ",483 28.00 3O.OO 79.72 78.37 uoo
Page 293 - The usual definitions are, for phase " a mass chemically and physically homogeneous or a mass of uniform concentration, the number of phases in a system being the number of different homogeneous masses, or the number of masses of different concentrations :"* and for components " the substances of independently *WD Bancroft, "The Phase Rule," p. I, .1897. variable concentration in the phase or system under consideration...
Page 49 - network" as "a fabric or structure of threads, cords, wires, or the like, crossing each other at certain intervals, and knotted or secured at the crossings.

Bibliographic information