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Determination of seepage losses
Design and construction
24 other sections not shown
asphaltic concrete asphaltic concrete lining bed width bentonite bitumen brick lining Bureau of Reclamation buried membrane lining canal lining canal section capacity cement concrete linings cement content Chambal clay cm thick compacted earth linings concrete lining concrete slabs concrete-lined construction cover material cross section cusecs density dry-mix soil-cement earth canals economical embankment equipment erosion excavation flow flume gravel hard-surface linings hydraulic conductivity India installation irrigation irrigation canals joints Kirkuk laboratory labour layer lined canal lining thickness m/sec maintenance measured method metre mortar operation Pakistan percent permeability piezometer pipe placed plastic poorly graded portland cement Precast concrete prefabricated sand screed sealing seepage losses seepage meter seepage rate shown in Figure side slopes silt silty slipform small canals soil-cement linings subgrade suitable surface tests tiles tubing type of lining U.S. Bureau unlined canals water losses water table water-cement ratio watertightness weed wetted perimeter yarv