Irrigation of Orchards

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U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1910 - Fruit trees - 36 pages
 

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Page 25 - ... of a cubic foot per second. In general, the most water is applied in districts that require the least. Wherever water is cheap and abundant the tendency seems to be to use large quantities, regardless of the requirements of the fruit trees. In Wyoming the duty of water is seldom less than at the rate of a cubic foot per second for 70 acres. In parts of southern California the same quantity of water not infrequently serves 400 acres...
Page 14 - It is ^ inch thick, 2 inches wide, and 3G inches long. If such tubes when thoroughly dry are dipped in hot asphalt they will last a much longer time. In some of the deciduous orchards of California a still larger wooden tube or box is used. Figure 9 represents one of these. It is made of four pieces of f by 3f inch redwood boards of the desired length. The flow through this tube is regulated by a cheap gate, consisting of a piece of galvanized iron fastened by means of a leather washer and a wire...
Page 24 - G.1G per cent below this level in an orchard which had not been irrigated since October of the preceding year. It had received, however, a winter rainfall of about 16 inches. On examination it was found that the bulk of the roots lay between the first and fourth foot. These trees in June seemed to be merely holding their own. When irrigated July 7 they began to make new growth. A few days after the water was applied the percentage of free water in the upper 4 feet of soil rose to 9.64 per cent. The...
Page 13 - A" scraper in building head ditches. half an inch to the rod or 3 inches to 100 feet. Such a ditch may be built by first plowing four furrows and then removing the loose earth either with shovels or a narrow scraper. The loose earth...
Page 30 - ... until it reaches some underground body of water at a lower level. In case orchards have been planted at these lower levels when the subsoil was dry, care should be exercised in observing the rise of the ground-water level. The small post-hole auger shown in figure...
Page 12 - A common practice in this direction is shown in figure 7, which represents the arrangement of trees in a young orchard in Douglas County, Wash. Here the trees are set in squares 18 feet each way, but in every other row peach trees alternate with the standard apple trees. In the remaining rows winesap apple trees are used for fillers. As the apple trees grow and begin to crowd the fillers, the peach trees are removed. If more gpt< Spill &-O Winesap JnoUm <*B. C.
Page 14 - ... but constant attention is required in order to maintain it. If the water is permitted to flow for a short time unattended the distribution is likely to become unequal. Parts of the ditch bank become soft, and, as the water rushes through, the earth is washed away, permitting larger discharges and lowering the general level of the water in the ditch so that other openings may have no discharge.
Page 12 - Oregon. Under irrigation systems peach trees should be spaced 20 to 22 feet, olive, pear, apricot, and cherry trees from 22 to 28 and 30 feet, orange trees 22 to 24 feet, apple trees 30 to 36 feet, and walnut trees from 48 to 56 feet apart.
Page 33 - Lit tle if any returns are expected for the first few years, but when the trees approach ma turity and are in full bearing the anticipated profits are supposed to compensate the owner for all the lean years. Any treatment, therefore, which tends to rob the soil of its plant food when the trees are young or to retard their growth is pretty certain to lessen the yields and the consequent profits in later years. Prof. EJ Wickson. director of the California Experiment Station, tersely expressed the prevailing...
Page 19 - Where the soil is open and water sinks readily through it, short furrows should be used, otherwise much water is lost in deep percolation on the upper part of the tract. Prof. H. Culbertson, of San Diego County, Cal., after a careful investigation of this subject has reached the conclusion...

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