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Trade Politics and Society
The Islamic Frontier
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activities agrarian armed Asia attacks attempt attitudes authority became become began British Calicut castes century Christians coast Cochin continued conversion discussion District Duarte Barbosa early economic effect eighteenth especially established European evidence fact finally force frontier Government Hindu Ibid immediate important incidents India influence interests involved Islamic issue janmi Kerala Khilāfat killed kind known Kottayam Kurikul land late later leaders least less Madras major Malabar Malayāli Mambram Manjeri Māppiļas merchants military mosque movement murder Muslims Nambūtiri Nāyars nineteenth northern occurred officials original outbreaks period political population Portuguese possible Press probably problem Raja reason Rebellion relations religious reported rule rulers rural Sayyid Sayyid Fadl seems settlement ships situation social society suggested Tannal tenants tenure tion Tipu Tirurangadi took town trade tradition violence Zamorins Zayn al-Din