Isle of Fire: The Political Ecology of Landscape Burning in Madagascar
University of Chicago Press, 2004年7月7日 - 324 頁
Long considered both best friend and worst enemy to humankind, fire is at once creative and destructive. On the endangered tropical island of Madagascar, these two faces of fire have fueled a century-long conflict between rural farmers and island leaders. Based on detailed fieldwork in Malagasy villages and a thorough archival investigation, Isle of Fire offers a detailed analysis of why Madagascar has always been aflame, why it always will be aflame, and ultimately, as Christian Kull argues, why it should remain aflame.
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Afotsara agriculture allowed Ambalavao Ambatolampy Ambositra Andapa Andringitra Antananarivo Province antifire antiﬁre received wisdom Antsirabe areas Asteraceae authorization Behazo Betroka Brand brousse burning cattle CBNRM chapter colonial commune rurale conﬂict Coulaud criminalization crop ﬁelds cultivation dahalo Décret deforestation diﬀerent district dry season ecological economic eﬀects eﬀorts enforcement environmental erosion eucalyptus farmers feux Fianarantsoa Province ﬁght ﬁgure ﬁne fire ﬁre management ﬁre problem ﬁrebreak ﬁrst fivondronana ﬂames fokontany Forest Service Forest Service agents forestry GELOSE grass grassland herders highlands Humbert humid Interview island land landibe landscape legislation livelihood locusts Madagascar Malagasy Merina natural nutrients oﬃcers oﬃcial pasture ﬁres pasture renewal peasants percent Perrier Pfund pine plots political population protect Province Pyne rain forest region repression resource management savanna savoka silk slash-and-burn soil species speciﬁc strategies tapia woodlands tavy tion trees Tsiroanomandidy vegetation village wildﬁres wood fuel woodlots zones
第 289 頁 - Blaikie, P., and H. Brookfield. 1987. Land Degradation and Society. New York: Methuen.