Keeping the Circle: American Indian Identity in Eastern North Carolina, 1885-2004

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U of Nebraska Press, Jan 1, 2005 - History - 191 pages
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"Keeping the Circle presents an overview of the modern history and identity of the Native peoples in twentieth-century North Carolina, including the Lumbees, the Tuscaroras, the Waccamaw Sioux, the Occaneechis, the Meherrins, the Haliwa-Saponis, and the Coharies. From the late 1800s until the 1930s, Native peoples in the eastern part of the state lived and farmed in small isolated communities. Although relatively insulated, they were acculturated, and few fit the traditional stereotype of an Indian. They spoke English, practiced Christianity, and in general lived and worked like other North Carolinians. Nonetheless, Indians in the state maintained a strong sense of "Indianness."" "The political, social, and economic changes effected by the New Deal and World War II forced Native Americans in eastern North Carolina to alter their definition of Indianness. The paths for gaining recognition of their Native identity in recent decades have varied: for some, identity has been achieved and expressed on a local stage; for others, sense of self is linked inextricably to national issues and concerns. Using a combination of oral history and archival research, Christopher Arris Oakley traces the strategic response of these Native groups in North Carolina to postwar society and draws broader conclusions about Native American identity in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century."--BOOK JACKET.

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Chapter One
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Page 184 - Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s (New York: Routledge, 1994).
Page 185 - Christine Leigh Heyrman, Southern Cross: The Beginnings of the Bible Belt (New York: Knopf, 1997).
Page 22 - Indians and their descendants shall have separate schools for their children, school committees of their own race and color, and shall be allowed to select teachers of their own choice, subject to the same rules and regulations as are applicable to all teachers in the general school law.
Page 183 - Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy, New York: Harper, 1944, Chapter 8, for an extended discussion of this point.

About the author (2005)

Greenville in the 20th Century is authored by associate professor of history Christopher Arris Oakley, digital collections librarian Matthew Reynolds, and manuscript curator Dale Sauter. Oakley, Reynolds, and Sauter are residents of Greenville and faculty members at East Carolina University. They have collaborated to document the transformation of Greenville, North Carolina, in the 20th century. Historic images are from the Daily Reflector and the Joyner Library at East Carolina University.

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