Keeping the Circle: American Indian Identity in Eastern North Carolina, 1885-2004
"Keeping the Circle presents an overview of the modern history and identity of the Native peoples in twentieth-century North Carolina, including the Lumbees, the Tuscaroras, the Waccamaw Sioux, the Occaneechis, the Meherrins, the Haliwa-Saponis, and the Coharies. From the late 1800s until the 1930s, Native peoples in the eastern part of the state lived and farmed in small isolated communities. Although relatively insulated, they were acculturated, and few fit the traditional stereotype of an Indian. They spoke English, practiced Christianity, and in general lived and worked like other North Carolinians. Nonetheless, Indians in the state maintained a strong sense of "Indianness."" "The political, social, and economic changes effected by the New Deal and World War II forced Native Americans in eastern North Carolina to alter their definition of Indianness. The paths for gaining recognition of their Native identity in recent decades have varied: for some, identity has been achieved and expressed on a local stage; for others, sense of self is linked inextricably to national issues and concerns. Using a combination of oral history and archival research, Christopher Arris Oakley traces the strategic response of these Native groups in North Carolina to postwar society and draws broader conclusions about Native American identity in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century."--BOOK JACKET.
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African Americans American Indian Americans in eastern anthropologist argued became beneﬁts bill blacks certiﬁcation Chapel Hill Cherokees churches Coharie Columbus County County Indians Croatan deﬁne Indianness deﬁnition Dial eastern North Carolina economic established ethnic farms federal government federal recognition ﬁnally ﬁnancial ﬁnd ﬁrst Greensboro Greensboro Daily Haliwa Haliwa-Saponi Henry Berry Lowry ibid Indian Affairs Indian communities Indian identity Indians of North Indians of Robeson Inﬂuenced interview inthe John Collier Josiah William Bailey land late living Locklear Lumbee Indian Histories Lumbee Petition Lumbee River Legal Native Americans nccia North Carolina Indians North Carolina–Chapel Hill Occaneechis ofﬁce ofﬁcials organized Oxendine pan-Indian Pearmain report Pembroke Pembroke State University percent political postwar powwow programs Quotation race racial Raleigh recognized tribes River Legal Services Robeson County Robeson Indians Sampson County Sider signiﬁcant social South Southern speciﬁc thousand traditional tribal Tuscaroras twentieth century U.S. Congress University of North University Press urban Waccamaw
Page 184 - Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1980s (New York: Routledge, 1994).
Page 22 - Indians and their descendants shall have separate schools for their children, school committees of their own race and color, and shall be allowed to select teachers of their own choice, subject to the same rules and regulations as are applicable to all teachers in the general school law.