LDA Application Methods: Laser Doppler Anemometry for Fluid Dynamics

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Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 12, 2010 - Technology & Engineering - 272 pages
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This technical book considers the application side of LDA techniques. Starting from the basic theories that are crucial for each LDA user, the main subject of the book is focused on diverse application methods. In details, it deals with universal methodical techniques that have been mostly developed in the last 15 years. The book thus gives for the first time an application reference for LDA users in improving the optical conditions and enhancing the measurement accuracies. It also provides the guidelines for simplifying the measurements and correcting measurement errors as well as for clarifying the application limits and extending the application areas of LDA techniques. Beside the treatments of some traditional optical and flow mechanical features influencing the measurement accuracies, the book shows a broad spectrum of LDA application methods in the manner of measuring the flow turbulence, resolving the secondary flow structures, and quantifying the optical aberrations at measurements of internal flows etc.. Thus, it also supports the further developments of both the hard- and software of LDA instrumentations.
 

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Contents

1 Introduction
1
2 Specifications of Engineering Turbulent Flows
11
3 LDA Principles and Laser Optics
19
4 LDA Systems
41
5 Basic Data Processing Methods in LDA Measurements
47
6 Linear Transformation of Velocities and Turbulent Stresses
53
7 Tracer Particles and Particle Motion Equations
69
8 Zero Correlation Method ZCM
89
Onaxis
147
Offaxis
151
15 Flow Measurements in Circular Pipes
191
16 Fringe Distortion Effects
219
17 Velocity Bias Effects
227
18 LDA Application Examples
243
Appendix A Offaxis LDA Alignment and Measurement Volume Displacement
253
Appendix B Laser Beam Orientation Under the Effect of the Bias Angle δ
259

9 Dual Measurement Method DMM
97
10 Symmetrical Method of 3DVelocity Measurements
113
11 Nonstationary Turbulent Flows
117
12 Turbulent Flow with Spatial Velocity Gradient
133
Appendix C Coordinate Transformation of the Reynolds Stress Matrix
263
References
267
Index
271
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About the author (2010)

Dr. -Ing. Zh. Zhang graduated from the School of Energy & Power Engineering of Xi’an Jiaotong University (PR China) in 1981. He received his PhD at the Institute of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics of Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany). Afterwards he joined Sulzer Markets & Technology Ltd in Winterthur, Switzerland, for experimental research of engineering flows. He is currently an engineer at the Oberhasli Hydroelectric Power Company (KWO), working on hydraulic designs and optimizations of hydraulic machineries. He is the author of the monograph «Freistrahlturbinen» 2009.