Laboratory Techniques in Organic Chemistry
This book deals with general information about work in Organic Chemistry Laboratory, viz., safety, first aid, different types of apparatus and their assemblies used for various types of reactions, stirring arrangements, heating techniques and low temperature experiments. Various methods used for purification of organic compounds have been described. Besides the normal technique, the book includes write-up about molecular distillation, chromatography and electrophoresis. Special emphasis has been given to the methods, which can be used for working up of organic reactions. Various methods, which can be used successfully for isolation of products from natural sources, have been incorporated. Emphasis has also been given on the isolation of products from oily mixture using the technique of Liquid-Liquid extraction. Methods for determining the criteria of purity of organic compounds have been discussed. The book also deals with drying and purification of solvents, preparation of spectroscopical grade solvents and HPCL solvents. The preparation of commonly used deuterated solvents (which are used for NMR spectroscopy work) is a special feature of this book.
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PURIFICATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
ISOLATION OR EXTRACTION OF PRODUCTS
CRITERIA OF PURITY
acetic acid acetone adsorbent adsorption alcohol alumina anhydrous apparatus benzene boiling point calcium capillary tube carbon carbon tetrachloride chloride chloroform chromatogram chromatography coloured column components conc concentrated condenser containing cooling crystals desiccator diameter dichloromethane dilute dioxide dissolved distillation flask distilled water dried dropping funnel eluting ethanol ether Ethyl evaporator explosion extracted Figure filter paper filtration flame fractional distillation heating hydrochloric acid hydrogen impurities inflammable inhalation laboratory layer liquid m.pt material melting point metal method obtained organic compound peroxides phase phenol phosphorus pentoxide plate potassium prepared pump pure purified reaction mixture reaction under reflux recrystallization reduced pressure removed resins Rf values sample separation separatory funnel shown in Fig side arm skin sodium bicarbonate solid soluble solvent steam stirrer stirring stopper substance suitable sulphuric acid technique temperature test tube thermometer toxic Type vacuum vapour volatile wash bottle water bath