Land and power: the Zionist resort to force, 1881-1948
No other issue so dramatically demonstrates the deep change which occurred during the last century in the image of the Jew, as the attitude toward the use of force. A people who were characterized as averse to violence and all forms of fighting, adopted military might as its identity symbol. Shapira traces the road along which the Zionist movement discarded its early mission of peaceful settlement in Palestine, to the incorporation of the use of force as a legitimate tool for realizing the idea of Jewish national sovereignty there. The emergence of a new, "Israeli" national ethos, accompanied by its particular symbols, myths, and norms, is the topic of this book. The evolution of a "defensive ethos" in the early decades of the century neglected the scruples and inhibitions of first generation socialist Zionist settlers. The appearance in the 1940s of an "offensive ethos" coincided with the coming of age of a new native-born generation, unfettered by their fathers' sensitivities. Shapira argues that it indicated that the barriers of ideology, moral norms, and mental restraints constructed by the founding fathers, proved unequal to the impact of social and political realities of colonization.
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The Heyday of the Defensive Ethos 19221936
The Shift to an Offensive Ethos 19361947
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activists Ahad Ha-Am Ahdut ha-Avoda Ahimeir Anita Shapira antisemitism Arab question Arab workers attack attitude Aviv became Beilinson Berdichevsky Berl Katznelson Betar blood Brenner Brit Shalom British clash colonization community in Palestine concept contrast Davar defensive ethos Diaspora Eliyahu Golomb estine Europe expression fact fight force Golomb Greenberg Gurion ha-Hagana Ha-Kibbutz ha-Meuhad Ha-Mahanot ha-Olim Ha-Noar ha-Oved Ha-Poel ha-Tzair Ha-Shomer ha-Tzair Hagana Hebrew Herzl Holocaust homeland Ibid idea Idem immigration Israel Jabotinsky Jerusalem Jewish community Jewish settlement Jewish-Arab Jews Jews and Arabs Jews in Palestine kibbutz Labor movement land leaders leadership Lehi Mapai Massada ment moral Moshe murder myth organization Palestine Palestinian Palmach peace Poalei Zion poem pogrom political psychological reality regarding revolution revolutionary riots Ruppin Russian Second Aliyah Sefer social socialist struggle symbols Tabenkin tion Trumpeldor Uri Zvi Greenberg Yishuv Yitzhak Yitzhak Tabenkin Yosef young youth movements Zionist movement