Language, Usage and Cognition
Language demonstrates structure while also showing considerable variation at all levels: languages differ from one another while still being shaped by the same principles; utterances within a language differ from one another while exhibiting the same structural patterns; languages change over time, but in fairly regular ways. This book focuses on the dynamic processes that create languages and give them their structure and variance. It outlines a theory of language that addresses the nature of grammar, taking into account its variance and gradience, and seeks explanation in terms of the recurrent processes that operate in language use. The evidence is based on the study of large corpora of spoken and written language, what we know about how languages change, as well as the results of experiments with language users. The result is an integrated theory of language use and language change which has implications for cognitive processing and language evolution.
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2 Rich memory for language
3 Chunking and degrees of autonomy
4 Analogy and similarity
5 Categorization and the distribution of constructions in corpora
6 Where do constructions come from? Synchrony and diachrony in a usagebased theory
7 Reanalysis or the gradual creation of new categories? The English Auxiliary
8 Gradient constituency and gradual reanalysis
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abstract adjectives adult American English analogy analysability argue autonomy become can’t Chapter chunking cognitive representations Collostructional Analysis com complex complex adaptive system compositionality con Consider construction grammar constructions context conventionalized corpora corpus crosslinguistic diachronic discourse discussion domaingeneral processes dynamic verbs examples exemplar model exemplar representation expression fact factors finite main verbs fre future marker gradience gradual gram grammatical meaning grammatical morphemes grammaticalization habitual highfrequency important indicating inferences inflection instance lan language change lexemes lexical items linguistic lowfrequency mechanisms Middle English morphological negation negative noun novel utterances occur Past Tense patterns periphrastic phonetic reduction phonological phrase phrase structure rules polysemy pragmatic prediction prefabs prepositions present tense productivity properties quedarse questions reanalysis relative clauses remember root possibility schematic semantic change sequences similar speakers specific spite stative structions studies theory tion Tok Pisin token frequency Traugott usage usagebased variation words zero morphemes