## Language and Philosophical ProblemsLanguage and Philosophical Problems investigates problems about mind, meaning and mathematics rooted in preconceptions of language. It deals in particular with problems which are connected with our tendency to be misled by certain prevailing views and preconceptions about language. Philosophical claims made by theorists of meaning are scrutinized and shown to be connected with common views about the nature of certain mathematical notions and methods. Drawing in particular on Wittgenstein's ideas, Sren Stenlund demonstrates a strategy for tracing out and resolving conceptual and philosophical problems. By a critical examination of examples from different areas of philosophy, he shows that many problems arise through the transgression of the limits of the use of technical concepts and formal methods. Many prima facie different kinds of problems are shown to have common roots, and should thus be dealt and resolved together. Such an approach is usually prevented by the influence of traditional philosophical terminology and classification. The results of this investigation make it clear that the received ways of subdividing the subject matter of philosophy often conceal the roots of the problem. |

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### Contents

LANGUAGE MIND AND MACHINES | 1 |

The notion of natural language | 4 |

Conceptual investigation | 7 |

Language as a universal medium | 9 |

Linguistic communication and solipsism | 14 |

The mental and the physical | 17 |

The idea of artificial intelligence | 22 |

Machine behaviour and human action | 25 |

Theory of meaning versus conceptual investigation | 60 |

Confusion of the perspectives of linguistics and philosophy | 65 |

Some philosophical prejudices | 70 |

Languages with specified structure | 73 |

Form and content of sentences | 78 |

The notion of literal meaning | 85 |

Indeterminacy of the form of expressions | 91 |

Idealization in science and philosophy | 97 |

Turings test | 30 |

Calculation versus mechanical symbol manipulation | 37 |

Deceptive criticism of AI | 40 |

Different senses of action | 45 |

Logical rules and conditions | 48 |

NOTIONS OF LANGUAGE AND THEORIES OF MEANING | 55 |

Sentences of a language versus formulas of a calculus | 101 |

FORM AND CONTENT IN MATHEMATICS | 131 |

Notes | 209 |

223 | |

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according actual language algebraic application argument arithmetic basis behaviour Brouwer calculation calculus conception communication conceived conception of language conceptual investigation concrete confusion construction Davidson's determined Dummett ematical empirical equation essential existence explained extensional picture external fact finite sequence formal logic formal representation formal system forms of expression formula Frege fundamental Hilbert human action idea ideal induction infinite instance interpretation intuitive involved iteration justified kind Kripke linguistic linguistic theory literally logical conditions logical form machine mathematical induction mathematical logic mechanical meta-mathematics methods misleading natural languages natural numbers naturalistic notation operation ordinary mathematics paraphrase philosophy of language philosophy of mathematics physical possible predicate calculus presupposes prime number primitive recursive function principle priori proof proof theory Quine's realized rules semantics sense sentence set theory someone statement structure symbols syntactical technical notions techniques theoretical theory of meaning things thinking traditional truth Turing Turing machine variable Wittgenstein words