Language and Thought of the Child: Selected Works, Volume 5

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Taylor & Francis, Oct 16, 1997 - Reference - 312 pages
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The Language and Thought of the Child By JEAN PIAGET Professor at the University of Neuchatel and at the Institut J. J. Rousseau, Geneva Preiace by PROFESSOR E. CLAPAREDE NEW YORK HARCOURT, BRACE COMPANY, INC. LONDON KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER CO., LTD. 1926 Translated by MARJORIK WARDEN CONTENTS PAGE PREFACE ix FOREWORD . . . . . . . xix CHAPTER I THE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE IN TWO CHILDREN OF SIX I I. The material ....... 5 I. An example of the talk taken down, 6 2. The functions of child language classified, 9 3. Repetition echolalia, ii 4. Monologue, 13 5. Collective monologue, 18 6. Adapted information, 19 7. Criticism and derision, 26 8. Commands, requests, threats, 27 9. Questions and answers, 28. II. Conclusions 34 10. The measure of ego-centrism, 34 n. Conclusion, 37 12. Results and hypotheses, 43. CHAPTER II TYPES AND STAGES IN THE CONVERSATION OF CHILDREN BETWEEN THE AGES OF FOUR AND SEVEN SO i. Check of the coefficient of ego-cenmsm, 51 2. Types of conversation between children, 52 3. Stage I Collective monologue, 56 4. Stage HA, First type Association with the action of others, 58 5. Stage UA, Second type Collaboration in action or in non vi CONTENTS abstract thought, 60 7. Stage I IB, First type Quarrelling, 65 8. Stage IIu, Second type Primi tive argument, 68 9, Stage IIlB Genuine argument, 7010, Conclusions, 73. CHAPTER III UNDERSTANDING AND VERBAL EXPLANATION IJEWEEN CHILDREN OF THE SAME AGE BETWEEN THE YEARS OF SIX AND EIGHT. 76 i. The method of experiment, 792. Parcelling out the material, 86 3. Numerical results, 944, Ego-centrism in the explanations given by one child to another, 99 5. The ideas of order and cause in the expositions given by the explainers, 1076. Thefactors of understanding, 119 7. Conclusion. The question of stages and the effort towards objectivity in the accounts given by children to one another, 124. CHAPTER IV SOME PECULIARITIES OF VERBAL UNDER STANDING IN THE CHILD BETWEEN THE AGES OF NINE AND ELEVEN 127 7. Verbal syncretism, 131 2, Syncretism of reasoning, 136 3. The need for justification at any price, 1454, Syncretism of understanding, 1505. Conclusion, 157. CHAPTER V THE QUESTIONS OF A CHILD OF SIX . . 1 62 I. f Whys 164 I. Principal types of whys, 166 2. Whys of causa explanation. Introduction and classification by material 171 3. Structure of the whys of explanation 1804. Whys of motivation 1885. a Whys of justification, 1 191 - 6, Conclusions, 197. LUJNIJiJNIb vn II. Questions not expressed under the form why . 199 7. Classification of Dels questions not expressed under the form, why, 199 8. Questions of causal explanation, 202 9. Questions of reality and history, 207 10. Ques tions about human actions and questions about rules, 214 ii. Questions of classification and calculation, 216. III. Conclusions 217 12. Statistical results, 217 13. The decline of precaus ality, 223 14. Conclusion. Categories of thought or logical functions in the child of seven, 227. APPENDIX 239 INDEX 245 PREFACE THE importance of this remarkable work deserves to be doubly emphasized, for its novelty consists both in the results obtained and in the method by which they have been reached. How does the child think How does he speak What are the characteristics of his judgment and of his reasoning For half a century the answer has been sought to these questions which are those which we meet with at the very threshold of child psychology. Ifphilosophers and biologists have bent their interest upon the soul of the child, it is because of the initial surprise they experienced at his logic and speech. In proof of this, we need only recall the words of Taine, of Darwin and of Egger, which are among the first recorded in the science of child logic. I cannot give a list here of all the works that have appeared since that period those of Preyer and of Sully, of P...

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About the author (1997)

Jean Piaget, 1896-1980 Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist, whose original training was in the natural sciences, spent much of his career studying the psychological development of children, largely at the Institut J.J. Rousseau at the University of Geneva, but also at home, with his own children as subjects. The impact of this research on child psychology has been enormous, and Piaget is the starting point for those seeking to learn how children view numbers, how they think of cause-and-effect relationships, or how they make moral judgments. Piaget found that cognitive development from infancy to adolescence invariably proceeds in four major stages from infancy to adolescence: sensory-motor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Each of these stages is marked by the development of cognitive structures, making possible the solution of problems that were impossible earlier and laying the foundation for the cognitive advances of the next stage. He showed that rational adult thinking is the culmination of an extensive process that begins with elementary sensory experiences and unfolds gradually until the individual is capable of dealing with imagined concepts, that is, abstract thought. By learning how children comprehend the world and how their intellectual processes mature, Piaget contributed much to the theory of knowledge as an active process in which the mind transforms reality. Put simply, Piaget described children from a perspective that no one had seen before.

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