Language and the Nation: The Language Question in Sub-Saharan Africa
Focusing on the problem of multilingualism in relation to national integration, communication, development and education in Eastern Africa, this study examines the processes of policy formulation. It discusses different types of language policies and practices in the context of the role of national and international agencies of language planning. Although the focus of the book is sub-Saharan Africa, comparisons with other parts of the world are made whenever necessary.
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Language and National Integration
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Language Communication and National Development
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adult literacy African countries African languages Arabic attitudes Bamgbose bilingual Cameroon classes colonial communication constraint cultural curriculum developing countries economic development elites ethnic group example experimental factors favour Fishman foreign official language French Ghana Hausa Igbo illiteracy implementation indigenous languages initial literacy instance involved Kenya language development language in education Language of Wider language planning language policy language teaching learning lingua franca linguistic heterogeneity literacy programmes major Mali mass materials medium of instruction minority languages monolingual mother tongue education mother tongue medium multilingual national development national integration national language Nigeria official language orthography policy decisions policy formulation political population possible practice primary education primary level Primary Project primary school level problems recommendations regional result role second language secondary schools Senegal situation Six Year Primary sociocultural Somali spoken Swahili Tanzania taught teachers tradition types of languages Uganda Unesco usually Wolof Yoruba Zambia