Ligand-Binding Assays: Development, Validation, and Implementation in the Drug Development Arena

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Masood N. Khan, John W. Findlay
John Wiley & Sons, Oct 22, 2009 - Medical - 424 pages
A consolidated and comprehensive reference on ligand-binding assays

Ligand-binding assays (LBAs) stand as the cornerstone of support for definition of the pharmaco-kinetics and toxicokinetics of macromolecules, an area of burgeoning interest in the pharmaceutical industry. Yet, outside of the Crystal City Conference proceedings, little guidance has been available for LBA validation, particularly for assays used to support macromolecule drug development. Ligand-Binding Assays: Development, Validation, and Implementation in the Drug Development Arena answers that growing need, serving as a reference text discussing critical aspects of the development, validation, and implementation of ligand-binding assays in the drug development field.

Ligand-Binding Assays covers essential topics related to ligand-binding assays, from pharmacokinetic studies, the development of LBAs, assay validation, statistical LBA aspects, and regulatory aspects, to software for LBAs and robotics and other emerging methodologies for LBAs. Highlights include:

  • A general discussion of challenges and proven approaches in the development of ligand-binding assays

  • More detailed examination of characteristics of these assays when applied to support of pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic studies of compounds at different stages in the discovery or development timeline

  • A concise, but detailed, discussion of validation of ligand-binding assays for macromolecules

  • A practical approach to "fit-for-purpose" validation of assays for biomarkers, those molecules receiving increased attention as potentially demonstrating that the target chosen in discovery is being modulated by the candidate therapeutic, both in nonclinical and clinical studies

Written by a team of world-recognized authorities in the field, Ligand-Binding Assays provides key information to a broad range of practitioners, both in the pharmaceutical and allied industries and in related contract research organizations and academic laboratories and, perhaps, even in the field of diagnostics and clinical chemistry.


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1 LigandBinding Assays in Drug Development Introduction and Historical Perspective
2 LigandBinding Assays to Support Disposition Studies of Macromolecular Therapeutics
3 Development of LigandBinding Assays for Drug Development Support
4 Validation of LigandBinding Assays to Support Pharmacokinetic Assessments of Biotherapeutics
5 Statistical Considerations in the Validation of LigandBinding Assays
6 Development and Validation of LigandBinding Assays for Biomarkers
7 The Use of Commercial Assay Kits for PKPD Analysis in Drug Development
8 Development and Validation of Immunogenicity Assays for Preclinical and Clinical Studies
9 Macromolecular Reference Standards for Biotherapeutic Pharmacokinetic Analysis
10 Strategies for Successful Transfer of LigandBinding Assays for Successful Validation and Implementation in GXP Environment
11 Application of Automation in LigandBinding Assays
12 Documentation and Regulatory Compliance
13 Alternative and Emerging Methodologies in LigandBinding Assays

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About the author (2009)

Masood N. Khan, PhD, received his PhD from Aligarh Muslim University, India, and did postdoctoral research at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, in immunology and cell biology. He subsequently moved to McGill University, Montreal, Canada, and served as assistant professor in the Department of Medicine. In 1988, he established and successfully directed the Ligand-Binding Assay Bioanalytical (LBAB) Department at Phoenix International Life Sciences (currently MDS Life Sciences), Montreal. Dr. Khan is a founding member of the LBAB Focus Group at AAPS and has coauthored authoritative reviews on validation of LBA and biomarker assays. He has over 100 publications and presentations to his credit. He is currently the Chief Scientist at GLP Solutions Inc. in Rockville, Maryland.

John W. A. Findlay, PhD, earned his PhD from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, and did postdoctoral work in organic and medicinal chemistry at the University of Virginia. He has extensive experience in successful drug development with several major pharmaceutical companies, particularly in the areas of bioanalysis and drug disposition. Dr. Findlay was a participant in the first AAPS/FDA workshop on bioanalytical method validation in 1990 and in subsequent AAPS/FDA workshops on this topic, as well as a coauthor of a guiding review article in this field published in 2000. Dr. Findlay has coauthored more than 140 original papers, reviews, book chapters, patents, and abstracts. He is currently a Senior Director in Clinical Pharmacology at Gilead Sciences in Durham, North Carolina.

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