Linguistic Behaviour

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Hackett Publishing, 1976 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 292 pages
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". . . advances aggressively through pertinent and lively argument. . . . There are numerous brief and incisive responses to important philosophers of language (Sellars, Quine, Dummett, Putnam, Chomsky, Ziff) on issues of major significance and no little controversy." -- Margaret Urban Coyne, International Philosophical Quarterly
 

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Contents

PROGRAMME FOR A SYNTHESIS 1 Identifying language I
1
The emphasis on behaviour
3
Meaningnominalism
7
Grice on meaning
11
a conceptual route
15
Sentencemeaning and wordmeaning
17
merely sufficient conditions
22
Thought and language
24
The nature of the evidence
141
Credence
144
Compliance
145
REGULAR MEANINGS 47 Escaping from icons
148
Learning without icons
150
Novelty in languagelearning
155
A problem about regular meanings
159
Injunctions and intentions
164

Thought without language?
27
Putnams deceivers
32
TELEOLOGY 11 Spinozas challenge
36
the basic theory
38
Some earlier theories of teleology
42
The concept of registration
46
the pure theory
48
Registration in practice
54
Negative feedback
59
Competing goals
61
Theory about preferences
65
Subjective probability
68
Teleology and mechanism
72
A fraudulent teleological explanation
75
Three corollaries
78
FORM 24 Introducing intention and belief
82
Educability
84
Inquisitiveness
86
Two theses about belief
87
Introducing intention
90
Defending the intention doctrine
92
CONTENT 30 Beliefs about the environment
96
epistemic input
98
behavioural output
103
Separating past from general
106
Beliefs about beliefs
111
Why logic needs language
113
What exactly does he think?
116
What exactly does he intend?
118
Intentions to produce beliefs
121
MEANING 39 Sufficient conditions for meaning
124
Weakening the conditions
128
Statements and injunctions
133
Introducing the tribe
137
The first case of meaning
138
Gricean intentions in actual languages
167
The subGricean conditions for meaning
171
CONVENTION 54 Lewis on convention
176
How to coordinate speakers with hearers
177
Direct evidence for conventionality
181
Conventionality in communication
186
Indirect evidence for conventionality
187
Communicative conventions again
192
Dullards and Condescenders
194
Evaluating the Gricean conditions
201
Animal communication
202
How language might begin
206
A LANGUAGE 64 Introducing structure
211
The sentencedictionary
213
Names and predicates
217
Translation through structure
221
Nonsymmetrical predicates
224
Complex designators
227
Complex predicates
229
Nested clauses
231
Propositional operators
234
Quantifiers
238
STRUCTURE 74 The independence of syntax
242
The dependence of syntax
244
Deep structure
249
Quines inextricability thesis
253
Quines indeterminacy thesis
257
Meaning and truth
264
Structure before regularities
272
An infinity of sentences
276
ZifFs strategy
280
Grices strategy
284
Select Bibliography
288
Index
290
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About the author (1976)

Jeffrey Bennett received a B.A. in biophysics from the University of California, San Diego (1981) and a Ph.D. in astrophysics from the University of Colorado, Boulder (1987). He currently spends most of his time as a teacher, speaker, and writer. He has taught extensively at all levels, including having founded and run a science summer school for elementary and middle school children. At the college level, he has taught more than fifty classes in subjects ranging from astronomy, physics, and mathematics, to education. He served two years as a visiting senior scientist at NASA headquarters, where he helped create numerous programs for science education. He also proposed the idea for and helped develop the Voyage Scale Model Solar System, which opened in 2001 on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. In addition to "The Cosmic Perspective," he has written college-level textbooks in astrobiology, mathematics, and statistics, and a book for the general public, "On the Cosmic Horizon" (Addison-Wesley, 2001). He also recently completed his first children's book, "Max Goes to the Moon" (Big Kid Science, 2003). When not working, he enjoys participating in masters swimming and in the daily adventures of life with his wife, Lisa, his children Grant and Brooke, and his dog, Max. Megan Donahue is an associate professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Michigan State University. Her current research is mainly on clusters of galaxies: their contents--dark matter, hot gas, galaxies, active galactic nuclei--and what they reveal about the contents of the universe and how galaxies form and evolve. She grew up on a farm in Nebraska and received a bachelor's degree in physics from MIT, whereshe began her research career as an X-ray astronomer. She has a Ph.D. in astrophysics from the University of Colorado, for a thesis on theory and optical observations of intergalactic and intracluster gas. That thesis won the 1993 Trumpler Award from the Astronomical Society for the Pacific for an outstanding astrophysics doctoral dissertation in North America. She continued post-doctoral research in optical and X-ray observations as a Carnegie Fellow at Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, and later as an STScl Institute Fellow at Space Telescope. Megan was a staff astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute, when she joined the MSU faculty. Megan is married to Mark Voit, who is also a frequent collaborator of hers on many projects, including "The Cosmic Perspective" and the raising of their three children, Michaela, Sebastian, and Angela. Between the births of Sebastian and Angela, Megan qualified for and ran the 2000 Boston Marathon. She hopes to run another one soon.

Nicholas M. Schneider is an associate professor in the Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences at the University of Colorado and a researcher in the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics. He received his B.A. in physics and astronomy from Dartmouth College in 1979 and his Ph.D. in planetary science from the University of Arizona in 1988. In 1991, he received the National Science Foundation's Presidential Young Investigator Award. His research interests include planetary atmospheres and planetary astronomy, with a focus on the odd case of Jupiter's moon Io. He enjoys teaching at all levels and is active in efforts to improve undergraduate astronomy education. Off the job, he enjoysexploring the outdoors with his family and figuring out how things work.

Mark Voit is an associate professor in the department of Physics and Astronomy at Michigan State University. He earned his A.B. in astrophysical sciences at Princeton University and his Ph.D. in astrophysics at the University of Colorado in 1990. He continued his studies at the California Institute of Technology, where he was a research fellow in theoretical astrophysics, then moved on to Johns Hopkins University as a Hubble Fellow. Before coming to Michigan State, Mark worked in the Office of Public Outreach at the Space Telescope, where he developed museum exhibitions about the Hubble Space Telescope and was the scientist behind NASA's HubbleSite. His research interests range from interstellar processes in our own galaxy to the clustering of galaxies in the early universe. He is married to co-author Megan Donahue, and they try to play outdoors with their three children whenever possible, enjoying hiking, camping, running, and orienteering. Mark is also author of the popular book "Hubble Space Telescope: New Views of the Universe,

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