## Linkage in Evolutionary ComputationIn recent years, the issue of linkage in GEAs has garnered greater attention and recognition from researchers. Conventional approaches that rely much on ad hoc tweaking of parameters to control the search by balancing the level of exploitation and exploration are grossly inadequate. As shown in the work reported here, such parameters tweaking based approaches have their limits; they can be easily ”fooled” by cases of triviality or peculiarity of the class of problems that the algorithms are designed to handle. Furthermore, these approaches are usually blind to the interactions between the decision variables, thereby disrupting the partial solutions that are being built up along the way. |

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### Contents

Parallel Bivariate Marginal Distribution Algorithm with Probability Model Migration | 3 |

Linkages Detection in HistogramBased Estimation of Distribution Algorithm | 24 |

Linkage in Island Models | 41 |

RealCoded ECGA for Solving Decomposable RealValued Optimization Problems | 61 |

Linkage Learning Accuracy in the Bayesian Optimization Algorithm | 87 |

The Impact of Exact Probabilistic Learning Algorithms in EDAs Based on Bayesian Networks | 109 |

Linkage Learning in Estimation of Distribution Algorithms | 140 |

Parallel GEAs with Linkage Analysis over Grid | 159 |

Symbiotic Evolution to Avoid Linkage Problem | 285 |

EpiSwarm a SwarmBased System for Investigating Genetic Epistasis | 315 |

RealCoded Extended Compact Genetic Algorithm Based on Mixtures of Models | 335 |

Linkage Representation and Uniform Crossover | 360 |

A Decomposed Approach for the Minimum Interference Frequency Assignment | 389 |

Set Representation and Multiparent Learning within an Evolutionary Algorithm for Optimal Design of Trusses | 418 |

A Network Design Problem by a GA with Linkage Identiﬁcation and Recombination for Overlapping Building Blocks | 441 |

KnowledgeBased Evolutionary Linkage in MEMS Design Synthesis | 460 |

Identiﬁcation and Exploitation of Linkage by Means of Alternative Splicing | 188 |

A ClusteringBased Approach for Linkage Learning Applied to Multimodal Optimization | 225 |

Studying the Eﬀects of Dual Coding on the Adaptation of Representation for Linkage in Evolutionary Algorithms | 249 |

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### Common terms and phrases

aBMDA aircraft applied approach Artificial Immune System assignment average Bayesian networks benchmark binary bisection method building blocks chromosome cluster coding complexity constraints convergence crossover decomposed decomposition deﬁned dependency diﬀerent distribution algorithms dynamic EBNA EDAs eﬀect eﬃcient encoding epistasis Estimation of Distribution evolutionary algorithms Evolutionary Computation ﬁgure ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁtness ﬁtness value ﬁxed frequency function gate Gaussian pdf GECCO genes genetic algorithms Genetic and Evolutionary global optimum Goldberg GPFAP graph Grid computing hBOA IEEE individuals inﬂuence initial interactions linkage identiﬁcation linkage information linkage learning loop MEMS meta-heuristics method MHGrid MRDFi nodes number of evaluations optimization problems parallel parameters parent parity partition Pelikan performance population probabilistic model probability problem size randomly real-coded ECGA real-valued rECGA recombination representation runs sampling scalability search space signiﬁcant SM-CHC solutions solve speciﬁc structure subsets substructures symmetry Table tion tournament selection truncation selection uniform crossover variables