Liquid Filtration

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Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998 - Science - 319 pages
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This book is a state-of-the-art review of liquid filtration in the chemical process and allied industries. Interpretations of the phenomenological observations of the hydrodynamics of filtration are given in the hopes of establishing more theoretical and generalized bases of design methodology. Specific design and selection criteria are reviewed, and typical industrial problems and their solutions are presented.

Nicholas Cheremisinoff is known internationally as one of the foremost engineers with Exxon and as the author of numerous books, articles and periodical contributions. Most recently his international consulting role has seen him active the Ukraine, part of the former Soviet Union, where the modernising of these industrial processes has been key.



Liquid Filtration is a fundamental unit operation extensively practiced throughout the chemical process, petroleum, and allied industries. It involves the separation, removal, and collection of a discrete phase of matter existing in a dispersed or colloidal state in suspension. This separation is most often performed in the presence of a complex media structure in which physical, physiochemical and/or electrokinetic forces interact.


Guide to an essential industrial operation
Single reference source for many industries
Author has world-wide experience and reputation
 

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Contents

AN INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID FILTRATION
4
The Porous Media
5
The Filter Media
12
Liquid Filtration Classification
13
The Formation of Filter Cake
14
Typical Industrial Filtration Conditions
15
General Considerations for Process Engineers
16
The Objectives of Filtration
17
Bed Regeneration
151
Flocculation Filtration
152
Slow Sand Filtration
154
Rapid Sand Filtration
156
Chemical Mixing Flocculation and Solids Contact Processes
158
Suggested Readings
165
ADVANCED MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT
166
Overview of Technology Case Study
167

Preparation Stages for Filtration
18
Equipment Selection Methodology
19
Nomenclature
21
FILTER MEDIA AND USE OF FILTER AIDS
22
Flexible Filter Media
23
Rigid Filter Media Fixed Rigid Media
37
Filter Media Selection Criteria
46
Introduction to the Use of Filter Aids
50
Examples of Filter Aids
53
Filter Aid Selection
54
Suggested Readings
60
Nomenclature
61
CAKE FILTRATION AND FILTER MEDIA FILTRATION
62
Dynamics of Cake Filtration
63
ConstantRate Filtration
73
VariableRate and Pressure Filtration
75
ConstantPressure and Rate Filtration
78
Filtration Mechanisms
84
Constant Rate Filtration
86
Suggested Readings
89
Nomenclature
90
INDUSTRIAL FILTRATION EQUIPMENT
91
Rotary Drum Filters
92
Cocurrent Filters
94
Cross Mode Filters
101
Cartridge Filters
106
Diaphragm Filters
113
High Pressure Thin Cake Filters
118
Thickeners
120
Solids Washing
123
Screw Presses
126
Ultrafiltration
127
Reverse Osmosis
137
Closure
144
APPLICATION OF FILTRATION TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT
145
Case Study Specifics
170
Technology Application
171
Mechanisms of Membrane Separations
172
Treatment of Hazardous Wastes
174
Features of the Hyperfiltration System
176
Process Economics
187
Detailed Process and Technology Description
196
Summary of Case Study Analytical Results
205
Closure
213
SLUDGE DEWATERING OPERATIONS
214
Overview of Dewatering Technologies
215
Use of Drying Beds
220
Use of Vacuum Filtration
222
Use of Pressure Filtration
225
Use of Centrifugation
226
Alternative Mechanical Dewatering Techniques
229
Suggested Readings
230
INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER SOURCES
232
Paper and Allied Products Industry Wastes
233
Dairy Products Industry Wastes
235
Textile Industry Wastes
240
Pharmaceutical Industry Wastes
243
Leather Tanning and Finishing Industry Wastes
246
Petroleum Refining Industry Wastes
249
Food and Meat Packing Industry Wastes
254
Beverages Industry Wastes
257
Plastic and Synthetic Materials Industry Wastes
261
Blast Furnaces Steel Works and Rolling and Finishing Wastes
264
Organic Chemicals Industry Wastes
268
Metal Finishing Industry Wastes
271
Closure
274
FILTRATION EQUIPMENT AND PROCESS FLOW SHEETS
275
INDEX
319
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About the author (1998)

Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff, Ph.D. (Ch.E.) is Director of Clean Technologies and Pollution Prevention Projects at PERI (Princeton Energy Resources International, LLC, Rockville, MD). He has led hundreds of pollution prevention audits and demonstrations; training programs on modern process design practices and plant safety; environmental management and product quality programs; and site assessments and remediation plans for both public and private sector clients throughout the world. He frequently serves as expert witness on personal injury and third-party property damage litigations arising from environmental catastrophes. Dr. Cheremisinoff has contributed extensively to the literature of environmental and chemical engineering as author, co-author, or editor of 150 technical reference books, including Butterworth-Heinemann's Handbook of Chemical Processing Equipment, and Green Profits.
He holds advanced degrees in chemical engineering from Clarkson College of Technology.

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