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THE NATURE AND FUNCTION
THE FORMAL LANGUAGES
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abbreviations affirmative algebraic notation apply argument form argumentum asserted assigned basic circle class product complementary terms complete compound statements conjunction consider construct contradiction CONV derived determine disjunction distinct elementary statements equivalent evaluation chart example EXERCISES existentially quantified expression F T F fact fallacy figure immediate inference indicated indirect inference individual informal fallacies introduced invalid involved justified language logical English logical sign major premise meaning ment negation negative obversion opinion pair pattern possible predicate term principles of inference procedure proof propositional function quality and distribution quantified statements represented restriction result rule of distribution rule of replacement rules of inference rules of quality second rule Shir singular statement square of opposition standard form statements in logical substitution instances syllogism syllogistic reasoning symbols tion true truth or falsity truth table truth values truth-functional universal statements universally quantified universe of discourse valid Venn diagrams violate