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The Anatomy of the Lumbar Intervertebral Discs
The Physiology of the Lumbar Intervertebral Discs
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abdominal abnormal disc acute affected ankylosis annulus arthritis arthrodesis articular associated become Bone Jt cartilage cauda equina cause cent changes completely condition conservative treatment corset degeneration degenerative diagnosis displacement erector spinae examination extrathecal course fibres fibrous tissue fifth lumbar root flexion fluid foramina grafts hemilaminectomy immobilisation infection injury intervertebral discs intervertebral joint laminae later localised low back pain lower lumbar discs lumbar disc lesions lumbar intervertebral discs lumbar region lumbar spine lumbo-sacral mechanical monoradicular movement muscle groups myelography nerve roots normal nuclear protrusion nuclear retropulsion nuclear tissue nucleus pulposus occur operation osteoarthritis patient Plate position possible posterior articulations posterior longitudinal ligament posteriorly posture present produced radiographs radiological referred pain root involvement root irritation sacral root sacro-iliac sacrum sciatic nerve sciatic pain scoliosis sensory sequestrum spasm spinal canal spinous processes spondylitis Spondylolisthesis stage straight leg raising strains surfaces Surg surgeon surgical technique traction transverse process usually vertebral bodies