MRI of the Liver: Imaging Techniques, Contrast Enhancement, Differential Diagnosis

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GŁnther Schneider, Luigi Grazioli, Sanjay Saini
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 18, 2006 - Medical - 412 pages
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Due to the latest developments in magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation of liver pathology, a second, completely revised and enlarged edition of this book was felt necessary – despite only three years having elapsed since the first edition.

All chapters from the first edition have been revised and enriched with additional illustrations and information. New chapters have been added covering important and highly relevant topics, among which imaging of pseudolesions, imaging of neoplastic diseases in pediatric subjects, imaging of bile ducts, MR angiography and imaging pre and post liver transplantation.

Particular attention has been paid to the differential use of contrast agents with emphasis placed on the authors’ broad experience of MR imaging of focal liver lesions using different contrast agents. The diverse mechanisms of action of all MR contrast agents applicable for liver imaging are explained in detail and comparative examples are provided.

As was the case with the first edition, this book will prove invaluable to radiologists wishing to further expand or consolidate their routine approach to MR imaging of the liver.

 

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Contents

Techniques for Liver MR Imaging
1
MR Imaging Techniques and Concepts
2
T1Weighted Sequences
5
Spoiled GradientEcho SGE Sequences
6
OutofPhase SGE Sequences
7
MotionInsensitive SGE
9
T2Weighted Sequences
11
The Uncooperative Patient Examination
13
Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma
206
Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma
211
Hepatic Sarcomas
214
Undifferentiated Embryonal Sarcoma
215
Secondary Malignant Liver Lesions
217
Metastases
218
References
233
Imaging of the Biliary Tree and Gallbladder Diseases
237

SAR and RF Power Deposition
14
References
15
Histopathologic Classification of Liver Pathologies
17
Benign and Malignant Nodular Hepatocellular Lesions
18
Multiacinar Regenerative Nodule
19
Dysplastic or Neoplastic Lesions
21
Dysplastic Focus
22
Hepatocellular Carcinoma HCC
23
Fibrolamellar Carcinoma FLC
25
Benign and Malignant Tumors of the Biliary Tract
26
Bile Duct Cystadenocarcinoma
27
Gallbladder Carcinoma
28
Lymphangioma
29
Undifferentiated Embryonal Sarcoma
30
Hepatoblastoma
31
Mesenchymal Hamartoma
32
Infectious Diseases of the Liver
33
Abscess Formation in Bile Ducts
34
Transfusional Iron Overload Hemosiderosis
35
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
36
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
37
Reyes Syndrome
38
Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis
39
Hereditary Intolerance of Fructose
40
Vascular Changes
41
VenoOcclusive Disease VOD
42
HIVassociated Liver Diseases
43
Hepatic Trauma
44
Metastases of Colorectal Adenocarcinoma
45
Infiltration of the Liver in Hematologic Diseases
46
Contrast Agents for Liver MR Imaging
53
NonSpecific Gadolinium Chelates
54
HepatocyteTargeted Contrast Agents
58
Agents with Combined Extracellular and HepatocyteSpecific Distribution
60
RESSpecific Contrast Agents
62
Injection Schemes for Liver MRI with Different Contrast Agents
72
Radiologic Classification of Focal Liver Lesions on Unenhanced and ContrastEnhanced MRI
73
Summary
74
References
82
Imaging of Benign Focal Liver Lesions
89
Focal Nodular Hyperplasia
97
Hepatocellular Adenoma
113
Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia
123
Cysts
130
Miscellaneous Tumors
135
Leiomyoma
137
Arnebic Abscess
141
Candidiasis Infection
143
References
146
Hepatic Pseudolesions
151
Anatomic Variants of the Hepatic Circulation
152
Hepatic Artery Compromise
153
Focal Spared Areas in Fatty Liver
161
Peliosis Hepatis
168
Confluent Hepatic Fibrosis
170
Segmental Hypertrophy
172
Vascular Pseudolesions
174
Arterioportal Fistulas
181
References
185
Imaging of Malignant Focal Liver Lesions
187
Anatomy
238
Biliary Tree and Gallbladder Anomalies
239
Carolis Disease
241
Biliary Atresia
245
Agenesis of the Gallbladder
248
Benign Biliary Neoplasms
249
Bile Duct Adenoma
252
Malignant Biliary Neoplasms
253
Biliary Cystadenocarcinoma
256
Benign Neoplasms of the Gallbladder
261
Gallbladder Carcinoid
263
References
264
Comparison of Available Contrast Agents for the Imaging of Specific Liver Lesions
267
Benign Focal Liver Lesions of Hepatocellular Origin
268
Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia NRH
271
Malignant Focal Liver Lesions of Hepatocellular Origin
282
Benign Focal Liver Lesions of nonHepatocellular Origin
293
Malignant Focal Liver Lesions of nonHepatocellular Origin
295
Cholangiocellular Carcinoma CCC
300
Summary
303
Imaging of Diffuse Liver Disease
305
Inflammatory Disease
308
Cirrhosis
311
Portal Hypertension
312
Iron Overload
313
Siderosis
315
Iron Overload in Liver Cirrhosis
317
Vascular Pathologies
318
ArterioVenous Malformations
328
References
332
MR Imaging of the Liver in Pediatric Patients
335
Techniques in Pediatric Liver Imaging
336
Benign Liver Lesions in Pediatric Patients
337
Focal Nodular Hyperplasia FNH
338
Choledochal Cyst and Cystic Dilatation of the Bile Duct
343
Malignant Liver Lesions in Pediatric Patients
346
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
349
Fibrolamellar Carcinoma FLC
352
Hepatobiliary Rhabdomyosarcoma RMS
353
Hepatic Angiosarcoma HAS
355
Hodgkins and NonHodgkins Lymphoma NHL Burkitt Lymphoma
357
Diffuse Liver Disease in Pediatric Patients
362
Liver Fibrosis
365
References
366
Imaging of the Liver PostSurgery andor PostAblative Therapy
371
RadioFrequency RF Ablation
373
LaserInduced Interstitial Therapy LITT
376
Cryotherapy
378
Regional Transarterial Chemoembolization TACE
379
Multimodality Treatment of Hepatic Lesions
385
References
387
MR Angiography in Liver Disease
389
TimeofFlight MRA
390
Imaging of the Arterial System
391
Imaging of the PortalVenous System
397
Evaluation in Liver Transplantation
399
Imaging of the Venous System
403
References
405
Subject Index
407
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