Machining and Related Characteristics of Southern Hardwoods

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U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1942 - Hardwoods - 42 pages

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Page 11 - Ring-porous woods: A group of hardwoods in which the pores are comparatively large at the beginning of each annual ring and decrease in size more or less abruptly toward the outer portion of the ring, thus forming a distinct inner zone of pores known as the springwood and the outer zone with smaller pores known as the summerwood.
Page 38 - ... comprising the inner bark, or thin, inner living part (phloem), and the outer bark, or corky layer, composed of dry, dead tissue. Bird Peck. — A small hole or patch of distorted grain resulting from birds pecking through the growing cells in the tree. In shape bird peck usually resembles a carpet tack with the point toward the bark, and it is usually accompanied by discoloration extending for a considerable distance along the grain and to a much lesser extent across the grain. The discoloration...
Page 3 - Planing is the most important of the machining operations studied, since nearly all hardwood lumber is planed before use. In addition to the factors that affect all machining operations, such as species, specific gravity, and moisture content, planing is affected by many different adjustments of the machine itself, making it probably the most complex of woodworking operations.
Page 5 - Cutting angle may be altered by changing cutter heads or by grinding a "back bevel
Page 17 - In most of the hardwoods tested, the mortises varied from the chisel size by amounts up to 0.006 inch parallel to the grain and 0.002 inch across the grain. In addition, the mortises tended to taper slightly, being largest on the entry side and smallest on the side where the chisel emerged. The taper was about 0.003 inch parallel to the grain and less than 0.001 across the grain.

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