Macroeconomic crises, policies, and growth in Brazil, 1964-90
World Bank Technical Paper No. 269. Water problems are emerging as the most compelling set of issues facing agricultural production in the 1990s. To address the policy challenges posed by this dilemma, this study focuses on the experience of the European Community (now the European Union, or EU) where high levels of nitrate, phosphate, and pesticides in surface and groundwater are a source of increasing concern. The author examines agricultural and water quality-related environmental policies at the EU and national levels, and discusses new policy approaches that attempt to integrate agricultural and environmental considerations. This study thus provides insights into policy options for controlling agricultural water pollution that might be useful in other parts of the world.
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The Postwar Brazilian Economy
The Public Sector and Its Financing
Money Inflation and Indexation
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adjustment Anudrio average balance of payments Banco Central Bank became Brazil Brazil's external capital account capital inflows capital markets chapter Collor Cruzado Plan cruzeiro current account deficit decade Delfim Despite early economic economists effect enterprises estimates expenditure exports external borrowing external debt external shocks fall federal finance financial assets foreign Getulio Vargas government's growth rate ibge ICOR important increase industry inflation rate inflation tax inflationary interest payments late loans long run macroeconomic measure ment monetarist monetary base monetary correction money supply nominal exchange rate nontradable oil shock output Paulo percent percentage of GDP period Plano Real policymakers political population populist president price index price level private sector PSBR public sector deficit rate of inflation real depreciation real exchange rate real interest rates real wages result revenue Ricardian equivalence rise salaries Sarney savings Source stabilization Table tion trends U.S. dollars Vargas worsening