Making Ends Meet in Contemporary Russia: Secondary Employment, Subsidiary Agriculture, and Social Networks
Throughout the 1990s, Russian households experienced a dramatic fall in their traditional sources of subsistence: wages and social benefits. Many commentators have argued that households have adopted survival strategies that enable them to make ends meet, particularly taking second jobs, growing their own food and calling on the help of family and friends. This text reviews the available data to analyse the forms, scale and incidence of these phenomena. The author finds that so-called survival strategies merely represent a continuation of traditional soviet practices. He demonstrates that they disproportionately benefit the better off and that they do not provide a means by which those who have suffered misfortune can compensate for a fall in their earnings. Instead, he illustrates that most Russian households have adapted simply by cutting expenditure rather than by finding new sources of income. The author concludes by arguing that the notion of a household survival strategy is inappropriate for the study of post-Soviet society.
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Scale of secondary employment
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administrative leave adult asked average breadwinner breadwinner role coefficients dacha dachniki data sets domestic production donors employees engage in secondary expect form of secondary Goskomstat higher household budget household income household members household money income household survey data household survival strategies incidence of secondary Income deciles income per head income quintiles increase individual economic activity involved ISITO data ISITO household survey ISITO survey Kemerovo Kemerovo oblast Komi Republic Labour Force Survey land less Logistic regression Lyubertsy main job Moscow Moscow oblast oblast paid pension percent of households Percentage plots population potatoes previous month primary employment primary job private transfers proportion receiving help recipients reciprocal region regression relationship reported respondents RLMS data roubles Samara second jobs secondary earnings significantly social networks Soviet period sovmestitel St Petersburg statistically significant substantial supplementary employment Syktyvkar Table undertake secondary employment urban households urban peasant variables Varshavskaya VTsIOM data wages women workers