Mannerheim: The Finnish Years
As soldier and statesman Gustaf Mannerheim (1867-1951) occupies a unique place in the history of Finland. He served as commander-in-chief in 1918 and 1939-44, as regent in 1919 and as president of the republic in 1944-6. He was a controversial figure, particularly to the left, following his role in 1918 in suppressing the Finnish revolution which followed the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. As a determined opponent of communism he made efforts to promote intervention against the Bolsheviks in Petrograd in 1918-20, but failed.
The passage of time turned him from a hero of the right into a trusted national figure, while his leadership of Finnish resistance to Soviet aggression in the Winter War of 1939-40 won him international fame. In 1941 he hoped that Germany would destroy the Soviet Union, and Finland fought against the Soviets as a co-belligerent to Hitler's Reich. Consequently Finland was forced to accept harsh armistice terms in 1944. Only Mannerheim's authority held the nation together as the painful adjustment to a new relationship with the Soviet Union began.
This book is the continuation of the author's study of Mannerheim's service in the imperial Russian army, and describes the transformation of Mannerheim from a 'Russian' general into a Finnish statesman and patriot. It sets his Finnish career in its historical context, examines his complex character, and sums up his legacy.
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CHAIRMAN OF THE DEFENCE COUNCIL
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accepted activists Agrarians Aland islands Allies appointed April arms army's attack August became Bolsheviks Bolshevism Brev British Carl Enckell chairman Colonel command commander-in-chief December decision Defence Corps Defence Council discussions Eastern Karelia election Enckell Erik Heinrichs Eva Sparre favoured February fighting Finnish army Finnish government forces foreign policy frontier German Grensholm Collection Gustaf Mannerheim Hanko Hannes Ignatius headquarters Heinrichs Helsinki independence intervention Jagers January July June Karelian isthmus Lapua Lapua Movement Linder Mannerheim Archive Mannerheim Suomen kohtaloissa Mannerheim wrote March Memoirs ment military Niukkanen non-socialist November October offensive officers Ohquist operation Osterman Ostrobothnia Paasikivi Palaemona Mannerheim parliament party peace Petrograd Petsamo plans political politicians position president prime minister resignation Rudolf Walden Russian Whites Ryti September situation social democrats socialists soldiers Sophie Sophie Mannerheim Soviet Union staff Stahlberg Stockholm Svinhufvud Sweden Swedish Talvela Tampere Tanner tion troops Viipuri Walden wanted