Manual of Fruit Diseases

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Page 437 - Lime. water slowly at first, so that the lime crumbles into a fine powder. If small quantities of lime are used, hot water is preferred. When completely slaked, or entirely powdered add more water. When the lime has slaked sufficiently, add water to bring it to a thick milk, or to a certain number of gallons. The amount required...
Page 57 - It follows, then, that the fundamental requirement of a wound dressing is that it should be a preservative and a preventive. Briefly, then, the dressing should have antiseptic qualities, and should be fluid, reasonably inexpensive, and easily prepared and applied; it is essential that it should give complete covering ; it must be impervious to air and water, must be durable, and must not injure nor kill the tissues nor interfere with the healing process. The preparations now most commonly used are...
Page 57 - ... the exposed dead wood and protect it from decay (Fig. 15). The fundamental requirements of a wound dressing, then, are that it be a preservative and a preventive. It should have antiseptic qualities, and should be fluid, reasonably inexpensive, and easily prepared and applied; it is essential that it give a complete covering ; it must be impervious to air and water, must be durable, and must not injure nor kill the tissues nor interfere in any way with the healing process (Fig. 16). Preparations...
Page 56 - ... the orchardist is satisfied that the value of the limb warrants it. An attempt to remove all kinds and sizes of cankers from an infested orchard, without regard to such a consideration, is likely to result in discouragement with the whole matter, and this practice is neither a good nor a paying one. The grower's judgment must guide him. Certain tools have been found advantageous for this work. A drawshave for use in removing diseased bark, and a farrier's knife for trimming the margin of the...
Page 57 - ... edge of the callus each spring, next to the wood, in order to stimulate wide spreading of the callus. The activity of the healing process depends on the character and position of the wound and the time of year when the wound is made, rather than on protective coverings. The sole object of painting a cut surface is to protect the heartwood from decay until the new growth, which forms from the growing tissue immediately beneath the bark, has had time to develop over the exposed dead wood and protect...
Page 58 - ... growers have complained of injury to trees from the use of coal tar, but in such cases the material has usually proved to be something other than coal tar. Coal tar has been used safely and successfully on peaches, plums, and cherries, in experiments conducted by members of this department. Spraying The effectiveness of spraying for canker is a question frequently raised. As a preventive this operation is worthy of attention; as a cure it is out of the question, for once the fungus is in the...
Page 57 - ... antiseptic qualities, and should be fluid, reasonably inexpensive, and easily prepared and applied; it is essential that it give a complete covering; it must be impervious to air and water, must be durable, and must not injure nor kill the tissues nor interfere in any way with the healing process (Fig. 16). Preparations that meet all these requirements are not to be obtained. The substances most commonly used are paint, asphaltum, and tars. Paint is an inefficient covering; asphaltum, once applied,...
Page 437 - Add water until the tank is about two-thirds full. From the stock lime mixture take the required amount. Knowing the number of pounds of lime in the stock mixture and the volume of that mixture, one can take out approximately the number of pounds required.
Page 47 - Bui. 53:45-65- 1896. The pollination of apples. In Report of the Horticulturist. Vermont Agr. Exp. Sta. Ann. rept. 13 (1899-1900): 362-366. 1901. WHIPPLE, OB Winter injury to fruit buds of the apple and the pear. Montana Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui.
Page 119 - ... is not necessary in the nursery. For budded quince stock, the first spraying should be made soon after the first leaves are developed, when the young buds are from eight to twelve (1889) Galloway, BT Experiments in the treatment of pear leaf-blight and the apple powdery mildew. US Agr. Dept., Veg. Path. Sec. Circ. 8 : in.

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