Manual of Mental and Physical Tests: A Book of Directions Compiled with Special Reference to the Experimental Study of School Children in the Laboratory Or Classroom, Part 2
"Hitherto the literature of mental and physical tests has been scattered in numerous journals; the results obtained by different investigators have too often not been compared; indeed, in many cases where the methods have been divergent, comparison has been impossible. In consequence, there have been no recognized standards of procedure and none of performance. Nevertheless, I believe that the time has now come for the taking of an account of stock, and for the systematization of the available materials. This conviction, which is the outgrowth of my own interest in the experimental study of mental capacities, an interest that has been with me during the past ten years, has been confirmed by many suggestions from colleagues and friends, who have pointed out that a manual of directions for mental tests would meet a real need, and might further the cause of investigation. I began, in March, 1906, to prepare a small handbook of mental tests. The impossibility of adequate treatment of the subject in small compass has, however, necessitated the expansion of that early undertaking into the present work. In the introductory sections of the volume, I have sought to show the general purposes of mental tests, to lay down rules for their conduct, and to explain the methods of treating data. In this connection I discuss the calculation of measures of general tendency, measures of variability, indexes of correlation, and other statistical constants. In the body of the volume, I have brought together, for specific treatment, some fifty of the most promising tests. In every case, my plan has been to sketch the development of the test, to prescribe a standard form of apparatus and method of procedure, to explain the treatment of the data secured, and to set forth the results and conclusions thus far obtained. The tests that I have selected may not prove, ultimately, to be those of most value, but they are, I think, numerous enough, and varied enough in type, to furnish a working basis for investigations for some time to come"--Pref. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).
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ability accuracy adults anthropometric association astigmatism attention auditory average Biervliet Binet and Henri Binet and Simon boys cancellation capacity cardboard cent child child-study college students color color-blindness compared computation correct correlation defect degree Dependence determine deviation difficult digits discrimination dominating letters dynamometer E. L. Thorndike Ebbinghaus efficiency employed esophoria esthesiometer experience experimental exposure fatigue girls give given grades hand hyperopia indicate individual differences Individual psychology intelligence investigators kymograph limen lists marked measure memory mental method metronome Meumann movement normal children number of letters number of words objects paper picture present psychology pupils range reading record relation reproduction school children sentences size-weight illusion Smedley Spearman speed suggestion supraliminal Table tachistoscope Thorndike tion Titchener total number trial Variations visual visual perception vital capacity weight Whipple Winteler write
Page 396 - When he entered the house the conquest of his heart was complete. It was one of those spacious farm-houses with high-ridged but lowly-sloping roofs, built in the style handed down from the first Dutch settlers, the low projecting eaves forming a piazza. along the front, capable of being closed up in bad weather. Under this were hung flails, harness, various utensils of husbandry, and nets for fishing in the neighboring river. Benches were built along the sides for summer use, and a great spinning-wheel...
Page 397 - In one corner stood a huge bag of wool, ready to be spun; in another, a quantity of linsey-woolsey just from the loom; ears of Indian corn, and strings of dried apples and peaches, hung in gay festoons along the walls, mingled with the gaud of red peppers...
Page 243 - A few steps further on we drew paper and pencil from our pockets, and tried which could describe the greater number of objects seen in passing. I must own that my son reached a perfection far greater than mine, for he could often write down forty objects, while I could scarce reach thirty. Often feeling vexed at this defeat, I would return to the shop and verify his statement, but he rarely made a mistake.
Page 221 - Yet, in so far as the capacity to attend does differ in different individuals and in the same individual at different times...
Page 112 - The objective fatigue phenomena which we note in the test are in all probability fatigue phenomena in the refractory phase or a lowered efficiency of coordination, equally a product of altered synaptic conditions ; the sensations of fatigue on the other hand, may with squal assurance be ascribed to tissue changes within the muscles that take place as a result of their continued effort.
Page 302 - The chief single result of the "Aussage" psychology is that an errorless report is not the rule, but the exception, even when the report is made by a competent S under favorable conditions. Thus in 240 reports, Miss Borst found only 2 per cent errorless narratives and 0.5 per cent errorless depositions. The average S, when no suggestive questions are employed, exhibits a coefficient of accuracy of approximately 75 per cent. (2) Range and accuracy. There is no general relation of range to accuracy,...
Page 3 - To make such assertions is surely misleading, for . . . there is at the present time scarcely a single mental test that can be applied unequivocally as a psychical measuring rod. The fact is we have not agreed upon methods of procedure; we too often do not know what we are measuring; and we too seldom realize the astounding complexity, variety, and delicacy of form of our psychical nature.
Page 306 - ... (11) Dependence on form of report. All authorities agree that the use of the interrogatory, whether of the complete or incomplete form, increases the range and decreases the accuracy of the report. Thus, in comparison with the narrative, the range of the interrogatory may be 50 per cent greater, while the inaccuracy (of the incomplete interrogatory) may be as much as 550 per cent greater.
Page 429 - as soon as you have thought of something that the blot resembles. Of course, the blot is not really intended to be a picture of anything, but I want to see whether your imagination will suggest some picture in it, just as you sometimes try to see what object you can make out of a cloud.
Page 507 - Then he reads the sentence very slowly. These are the sentences : 1. An unfortunate cyclist has had his head broken and is dead from the fall: they have taken him to the hospital and they do not think that he will recover. 2. I have three brothers, Paul, Ernest and myself. 3. The police found yesterday...