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American armed vessels authority belligerent belligerent right belonging blockaded port Bolivia bottomry bound Britain British capture cargo carried certificate character Charter-party circumstances citizens civil commander commerce commission condemnation Confederate confiscation contraband contraband of war convoy crew cruisers Dana's Wheaton declaration destination duty Ecuador effect enemy enemy's property engaged exercise existence flag force foreign France French Hautefeuille hostile Ibid injury intention international law jurisdiction latter law of nations Lawrence's Wheaton letters of marque liable maritime master merchant vessels military muster-roll naval necessary neutral government neutral port neutral territory neutral vessel notification offence officers owner papers parties peace penalty persons piracy pirates practice present principle prisoners of war prize courts prize law prohibited provisions Prussia punishment purpose recapture reprisals rule sailing salvage seizure ship's sovereign stipulations subjects surrender traband trade troops U. S. Treaties United usage Vattel violation visitation and search voyage Woolsey
Page 585 - A neutral Government is bound — First, to use due diligence to prevent the fitting out, arming, or equipping, within its jurisdiction, of any vessel which it has reasonable ground to believe is intended to cruise or to carry on war against a Power with which it is at peace...
Page 458 - The neutral flag covers enemy's goods, with the exception of contraband of war ; 3. Neutral goods, with the exception of contraband of war, are not liable to capture under enemy's flag; 4. Blockades, in order to be binding, must be effective ; that is to say, maintained by a force sufficient really to prevent access to the coast of the enemy.
Page 382 - And all women and children, scholars of every faculty, cultivators of the Earth, artisans, manufacturers and fishermen, unarmed and inhabiting unfortified towns, villages, or places, and in general all others, whose occupations are for the common subsistence and benefit of mankind...
Page 585 - And whereas the effects of a violation of neutrality committed by means of the construction, equipment, and armament of a vessel are not done away with by any commission which the government of the belligerent power, benefited by the violation of neutrality, may...
Page 521 - That the penalty for the violent contravention of this right is the confiscation of the property so withheld from visitation and search. For the proof of this I need only refer to Vattel, one of the most correct and certainly not the least indulgent of modern professors of public law.
Page 515 - ... with two or three men only, in order to execute the said examination of the papers concerning the ownership and cargo of the vessel, without causing the least extortion, violence, or...
Page 530 - The Supreme Court of the United States has followed the less rigorous English rule, and held that the spoliation of papers was not of itself sufficient ground for condemnation, and that it was a circumstance open for explanation, for it may have arisen from accident, necessity, or superior force.
Page 473 - All other merchandises and things not comprehended in the articles of contraband explicitly enumerated and classified as above, shall be held and considered as free, and subjects of free and lawful commerce, so that they may be carried and transported in the freest manner by both the contracting parties, even to places belonging to an enemy, excepting only those places which are at that time besieged or blocked up; and to avoid all doubt in this particular, it is declared that those places only are...
Page 524 - ... the verbal declaration of the commander of the convoy, on his word of honor, that the vessels under his protection belong to the nation whose flag he carries, and, when they may be bound to an enemy's port, that they have no contraband goods on board, shall be sufficient.
Page 438 - But the blockade of a coast, or of commercial positions along it, without any regard to ulterior military operations, and with the real design of carrying on a war against trade, and from its very nature against the trade of peaceful and friendly Powers, instead of a war against armed men, is a proceeding which it is difficult to reconcile with reason or the opinions of modern times.