Materials Characterization for Process Control and Product Confromity: Introduction to Methods for Nondestructive Characterization of Materials Microstructure and Materials Properties During Production, Operation, and Inspection

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CRC Press, Sep 20, 1994 - Technology & Engineering - 256 pages
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Nondestructive testing (NDT) is used to examine the ability of materials and components to withstand loads. Two features of NDT are defect inspection and materials characterization. Because of the increasing ability to manufacture materials and products "defect free" there is less need for defect-oriented NDT but an increasing need for materials characterization. This book is the first comprehensive work on materials characterization, presenting the state of the art and practical applications.
Materials characterization is used during production, operations, service intervals, or after repairs. Materials are used to withstand mechanical, thermal, chemical, and irradiation loads-or a combination thereof. The ability to withstand these loads is essentially a function of parameters like chemical composition, microstructure, macrostructure, residual stresses, and materials properties.
The physical background of NDT is presented along with its different methods. Ultrasonics, electromagnetics, and X-rays are treated with appropriate detail, while other methods such as acoustic emission, vibration analysis, optical, and thermal methods are also covered. The different methods of materials characterization are discussed following the goal parameters, from atomic to macroscopic dimensions. One of the practical features of the book is the presentation of real world applications. On-line process control and condition monitoring are discussed, as well as off-line applications for materials characterization after production and after operation.
 

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Contents

Ultrasound
3
Scattering
27
Electromagnetics
39
XRays
57
Other Methods
67
Materials Sorting
79
Heat Treatment Characterization
86
Macrostructure
125
Residual Stresses
149
Materials Properties
181
OnLine Materials Characterization
199
OffLine Materials Characterization
211
References
227
Index
239
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