Materials Characterization for Process Control and Product Confromity: Introduction to Methods for Nondestructive Characterization of Materials Microstructure and Materials Properties During Production, Operation, and Inspection
Nondestructive testing (NDT) is used to examine the ability of materials and components to withstand loads. Two features of NDT are defect inspection and materials characterization. Because of the increasing ability to manufacture materials and products "defect free" there is less need for defect-oriented NDT but an increasing need for materials characterization. This book is the first comprehensive work on materials characterization, presenting the state of the art and practical applications.
Materials characterization is used during production, operations, service intervals, or after repairs. Materials are used to withstand mechanical, thermal, chemical, and irradiation loads-or a combination thereof. The ability to withstand these loads is essentially a function of parameters like chemical composition, microstructure, macrostructure, residual stresses, and materials properties.
The physical background of NDT is presented along with its different methods. Ultrasonics, electromagnetics, and X-rays are treated with appropriate detail, while other methods such as acoustic emission, vibration analysis, optical, and thermal methods are also covered. The different methods of materials characterization are discussed following the goal parameters, from atomic to macroscopic dimensions. One of the practical features of the book is the presentation of real world applications. On-line process control and condition monitoring are discussed, as well as off-line applications for materials characterization after production and after operation.
Heat Treatment Characterization
absorption coefficient acoustic emission amplitude angle anisotropy attenuation coefficient backscattering behavior birefringence Bussiere Chapter coil composites correlation creep curve defects density depth described destructive testing determination direction dislocations eddy current elastic constants electromagnetic energy Equation especially evaluation example excitation ferromagnetic field Figure fracture function Goebbels grain hardness heat treatment higher harmonics Hirsekorn homogeneous hysteresis influence interaction lattice load longitudinal waves macroscopic magnetic Barkhausen noise magnetoinductive magnetostriction materials characterization materials properties materials sorting metal metallography methods micromagnetic microstructure NDT measuring quantities nondestructive testing on-line orientation permeability plastic deformation polycrystal polycrystalline porosity probe pulse quasiisotropic Rayleigh waves reference residual stresses scattering secondary phases shear waves signal single crystal Specimen Std Mic NDT steel strain surface technique temperature tensile texture tion TOEC ultrasonic backscattering ultrasonic wave ultrasound values vibration analysis volume wave propagation wave velocity wavelength weld whereas Willems X-ray yield strength Young's modulus