## Math Handbook for Water System Operators: Math Fundamentals and Problem SolvingWater system operators use mathematics to make key operational decisions. Math is also used in planning system maintenance, laboratory analyses, keeping records and estimating budgets. It is important for the operator to have an understanding of math fundamentals along with the technical concepts of water system operations. By reviewing the math principles presented in this text and linking these principles to water system concepts, the operator can better understand and solve math related problems. This Handbook presents common water system problems and the methods used to solve these problems. Math Handbook for Water System Operators is a valuable resource in preparing the operator for math problems given on licensing examinations for water treatment and water distribution operation. Typical exam problems are solved in an easy to understand, step-by-step format. |

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### Contents

Review Problems | 13 |

The Metric System | 26 |

Review Problems | 39 |

Review Problems | 53 |

Conversions | 55 |

Density and Specific Gravity | 68 |

Water Pumping and Storage | 81 |

Horsepower and Efficiency | 95 |

Alkalinity | 113 |

Water Supply Wells | 127 |

ProblemSolving Methods | 141 |

Common Formulas | 195 |

Appendix E List of Elements | 209 |

### Common terms and phrases

Alkalinity Atomic Weight CaCOa Calculate the volume carbonate Chapter 6 Review chlorine clearwell concentration Convert the units cubic feet cubic foot cylinder decimal format decimal point density detention Determine diameter digit divided Dosage mg/L drainage basin Enter Equivalent Weight Example expressed Flow mgd fluoride following equation gallons gallons per day gallons per minute gals gpcd grams headloss horsepower Ibs/day Influent ion exchange kilowatt-hour Kilowatt-hour Charge known values magnesium magnesium hardness Mass Flow measurements meter milligrams milliliters million gallons mole molecular weight Motor hp multiplying percent pipe Plug the known pounds formula pounds per day pressure purity rainfall rapid sand filter Rearrange the equation Review Problems scientific notation Sedimentation Basin Sedimentation Tank shown significant figures sodium hypochlorite sodium sulfate Solutions to Chapter specific gravity Step subtraction surface area treatment process velocity water level water main water storage tank water system operators