Measurement in Medicine: A Practical Guide
Cambridge University Press, Aug 11, 2011 - Medical
The success of the Apgar score demonstrates the astounding power of an appropriate clinical instrument. This down-to-earth book provides practical advice, underpinned by theoretical principles, on developing and evaluating measurement instruments in all fields of medicine. It equips you to choose the most appropriate instrument for specific purposes. The book covers measurement theories, methods and criteria for evaluating and selecting instruments. It provides methods to assess measurement properties, such as reliability, validity and responsiveness, and interpret the results. Worked examples and end-of-chapter assignments use real data and well-known instruments to build your skills at implementation and interpretation through hands-on analysis of real-life cases. All data and solutions are available online. This is a perfect course book for students and a perfect companion for professionals/researchers in the medical and health sciences who care about the quality and meaning of the measurements they perform.
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3 Development of a measurement instrument
4 Fieldtesting item reduction and data structure
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anchor anchor-based assess blood pressure calculate ceiling effects change scores Chapter classical test theory clinical clinicians coefficient conceptual considered construct validity content validity correlation criterion validity Cronbach’s alpha developed disability discrimination disease distribution error variance evaluate example factor analysis Figure formative model formula gold standard health status HRQL hypotheses ICCconsistency improved indicating instru internal consistency interpretation item response theory kappa value level of measurement limits of agreement mean meas measurement error measurement instrument measurement properties measurement theories ment methodological quality methods MIC value number of items outcome pain patient-reported outcomes patients performed Peter’s scores physical functioning question questionnaire raters reflective model relevant reliability parameter repeated measurements response options response shift scale Section specific statistical study population subscales symptoms systematic review Table target population test–retest theory tion trait level urement variables VCM1 WOMAC σ σ σ