Measuring interjudge sentencing disparity: before and after the federal sentencing guidelines
James Morley Anderson, Jeffrey R. Kling, Kate Stith, Princeton University. Industrial Relations Section
Industrial Relations Section, Dept. of Economics, Princeton University, 1999 - Law - 37 pages
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2-year periods analysis assigned to judges average sentence length bias Cabranes caseloads change in disparity chi-square test comparable computed concem correlation Count Data crimes criminal justice system Criminal Sentences decision makers defendant deﬁned deﬁnition disparity in sentencing dispersion distribution of sentence district ofﬁce drug embezzlement and fraud equation expected difference Federal Sentencing Guidelines ﬁle ﬁled ﬁnds ﬁrst Frankel Gini coefﬁcient Hofer interjudge disparity interjudge sentencing disparity John Lott judge effects judicial discretion LAW AND ECONOMICS Lott mean sentence length months negative binomial model offender’s offense types ofﬁce mean p-value parameters Paul Hofer percent pre-Guidelines prison sentence length probation ofﬁcers prosecutor random assignment random effect random effects model randomly reducing interjudge reﬂect sampling error Second Circuit sentencing process Sentencing Reform Act Sentencing Rep shares of offense signiﬁcant simulation speciﬁc standard errors substantial Table tencing tion U.S. Sentencing Commission U.S. Supreme Court unwarranted disparities unweighted variance Waldfogel weighted