Measuring the Mind: Education and Psychology in England C.1860-c.1990
The central claim of Measuring the Mind is that, contrary to popular opinion, the psychologists who dominated educational policy-making between the wars were educational progressives and political radicals. They argued that education should reflect the requirements of children rather than the convenience of adults, and regarded intelligence testing as an instrument of child-centered education. These psychologists owed their political inspiration to the meritocratic ideal and lost popularity with the waning of this ideal after the war. Four main themes dominate the discussion: the emergence of educational psychology as a distinct discipline; the recent history of ideas about children's mental developments; the role of experts in formulating educational policy; and the rise and fall of the measurement of merit.
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2 Studying childhood
3 The invention of educational psychology
4 Cyril Burt and the psychology of individual differences
5 Susan Isaacs and the psychology of child development
6 The structure and status of a profession
7 Mental measurement and the meritocratic ideal
8 The psychometric perspective
11 Equality and community versus merit
12 Egalitarianism triumphant
13 Cyril Burt and the politics of an academic reputation
14 Equality and human nature
15 The measurement of merit revived ?
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A. H. Halsey ability academic argued arguments Ballard biological Board of Education Brian Simon British Psychological Society Burt’s Cambridge cent child guidance Child Study College Committee comprehensive schools criticisms culture Delinquent discipline Education Authorities educational psychology educational system Úlite emphasised English Eugenics examination experience Eysenck factor ﬁrst Francis Galton Galton genetic grammar schools Halsey Hans Eysenck Hearnshaw hereditarian History human Ibid inﬂuence inﬂuential innate insisted Institute intellectual intelligence tests interest Jensen Karl Pearson Labour Local Education Authorities London mental deﬁciency mental tests Merit and Measurement meritocratic middle-class mind movement natural opportunity organisation Oxford Papers parents political population problems profession professional psychometric psychometrists pupils qualiﬁcations R. H. Tawney reﬂected reform Report scholarship scientiﬁc selection social Society Sociobiology Spearman statistical subnormal Susan Isaacs teachers teaching theory Thomson tradition University working-class children Young